In News: The Supreme Court of India has ruled in favour of residents of four Odisha villages (Tumulia, Jhupuranga, Ratansara and Kirpsara) whose land had been acquired by Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd (MCL) in 1988.
- The landowners will be given compensation per the Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (which replaced the old Land Acquisition Act, 1894)
- This is the first time the State has been obligated to ensure that resettlement and rehabilitation were provided in addition to compensation.
- Compensation by MCL includes developing housing plots, one-time cash settlements of Rs 25 lakh and to provide employment to two members of the displaced families with other monetary and tangible benefits.
- It is a major river in East Central India.
- It arises from Raipur district of Chhatisgarh and flows for about 851 km through the states of Chhattisgarh and Odisha and finally merged with Bay of Bengal.
- Its tributaries include Seonath, the Jonk, the Hasdeo, the Mand, the ib, the Ong and the Tel.
- Hirakud Dam is located on the river.
About Coal reserves in India:
- India ranks 5th in terms of coal reserves in the world.
- A total of 326.49 Billion tonnes of reserves estimated as in 2019 by Geological Survey of India.
- India has 50 Gondwana coalfields (250 mn years old) and 18 Tertiary coalfields (15-60 mn years old).
- Gondwana coal fields make up 98% of the total coal reserves and 99% of total coal production in India.
- Talcher coalfield, Odisha, is having the pride of highest geological reserve of 51.220 BT in the country.
- Distribution of coal in India is as follows:
- Jharkhand coal fields are as follows:
About Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL):
- It is one of the eight subsidiaries of Coal India Limited.
- It was carved out of South Eastern Coalfields Limited in 1992 with its headquarters at Sambalpur.
- In 2019, it got Miniratna status.
- Joint Ventures of MCL include Mahanadi Basin Power Limited (SPV), MJSJ Coal Limited, MNH Shakti Limited, Mahanadi Coal Railway Limited.
Source: Down To Earth
Previous Year Question
Q.1) Consider the following rivers: (2021)
Which of the above rise from the Eastern Ghats?
- 1 and 2
- 2 and 4
- 3 and 4
- 1 and 3