Day 29 – Q. 3 How have the processes of modernization and globalization impacted traditional social structures and practices in India, and what has been the role of government and civil society in addressing these changes? Analyse.

  • IASbaba
  • December 26, 2022
  • 0
GS 1, Indian Society, TLP-UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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How have the processes of modernization and globalization impacted traditional social structures and practices in India, and what has been the role of government and civil society in addressing these changes? Analyse.

आधुनिकीकरण और वैश्वीकरण की प्रक्रियाओं ने भारत में पारंपरिक सामाजिक संरचनाओं और प्रथाओं को कैसे प्रभावित किया है, और इन परिवर्तनों को सम्बोधित करने में सरकार और नागरिक समाज की क्या भूमिका रही है? विश्लेषण करें।

Approach –

In this question candidates need to write about how the process of ,modernization and globalization impacted traditional social structures and practices in India,In second part write the role of government in addressing these changes .

Introduction –

The process of modernization and Globalization is used to describe how trade and technology have made the world a more connected and interdependent place. Globalization also captures in its scope the economic and social changes that have come about as a result.

Body –

Effect of modernization and globalization on Indian society-

  • Transformation of a society from a rural and agrarian condition to a secular, urban, and industrial one.
  • It is closely linked with industrialization. As societies modernize, the individual becomes increasingly important, gradually replacing the family, community, or occupational group as the basic unit of society.
  • Division of labour, characteristic of industrialization, is also applied to institutions, which become more highly specialized. Instead of being governed by tradition or custom, society comes to be governed according to abstract principles formulated for that purpose.
  • Traditional religious beliefs often decline in importance, and distinctive cultural traits are often lost.
  • Western institutions like banking system, public administration, military organization, modern medicine, law, etc., were introduced in our country.
  • Western education broadened the outlook of the people who started talking of their rights and freedom. The introduction of the new values, the rational and secular spirit, and the ideologies of individualism, equality and justice assumed great importance.
  • Acceptance of scientific innovations heightened the aspirations for raising the standard of living and providing material welfare for the people.
  • Many reform movements came into being. Several traditional beliefs and practices dysfunctional to society were discarded and many new customs, institutions and social practices were adopted.
  • Our technology, agriculture, entrepreneurship and industry were modernized leading to the economic well-being of our country.
  • The hierarchy of political values has been restructured. Accepting the democratic form of government, all native states, which had been under a monarchic form of government, have been merged into the Indian State and the authority and domination of feudal and zamindars has been demolished.
  • There have been structural changes in social institutions like marriage, family and caste, creating new forms of relations in social life, religion, etc.
  • The introduction of the modern means of communication, such as railway and bus travel, postal service, air and sea travel, press, and radio and television have affected man’s life in varied respects.
  • Growth of cities: It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.
  • Indian cuisine: is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.
  • Old Age Vulnerability: The rise of nuclear families has reduced the social security that the joint family provided. This has led to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of old age individual
  • Globalization also means growing interdependence in other nations- this can issues like misdistribution of resources. The parity between underdeveloped, developing, and developed remains status quo in many cases.
  • Globalization does have a great effect on the ecologies and environments of nations that need safeguards that lessen the negative effects rather than exploiting them without regard to such concerns.
  • The negative effects of globalization on the Indian Industry are that with the coming of technology the number of labor required is decreased and this resulted in increasing unemployment, especially in the arena of the pharmaceutical, chemical, manufacturing, and cement industries.
  • There are a few challenges for companies due to globalization such as Migration, relocation, labor shortages, competition, and changes in skills and technology.

Role of government to addressing and mitigating these changes-

  • Civil society plays a vital role in the formation of public policies to meet the common goals and aspirations of a global citizenry.
  • With the advent of Globalisation, civil societies got more organized, formal and structured. Moreover, it also started receiving funds from international organization for specific cause. For example, Oxfam trust, American india foundation etc.
  • Reservation in the educational institutions and financial assistance in the form of scholarships provides them greater access to quality education.NGOs has given them voice against the oppression.
  • The first important legislation was the abolition of the zamindari system,which removed the layer of intermediaries who stood between the cultivators and the state.
  • Among the other major land reform laws that were introduced were the tenancy abolition and regulation acts.They attempted either to outlaw tenancy altogether or to regulate rents to give some security to the tenants.
  • Globalisation has provided farmers with better quality seeds that have helped them to increase their product yield.With advanced technologies, farmers have better acqess to weather forecasting system which reduces chances of crop failure.
  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emphasize equality of opportunity and reducing inequality of outcomes, the elimination of discrimination in law, policy and social practice, and socio-economic inclusion of all under the banner goal ‘to leave nobody behind’.
  • The acceleration of urbanization is profoundly affecting the transformation of Indian society.India’s largest cities have grown at twice the rate of its small towns and villages, with many of the increases due to rural-urban migration. Hence government creating employment opportunities in to tackle migration issues .
  • Globalization has led to loss of livelihood. Because of it, there are differing views on the impact of Globalisation.With greater awareness among the masses about their rights, the government is making a conscious effort to fulfill their demands by moving towards a right based approach by enacting laws like RTI, MNREGA and others
  • Inter caste marriages promoted by government-The rigid caste system is gradually giving way to relaxed norms. Inter-caste marriages, intermingling and socializing with other castes is no longer regarded as a taboo .
  • Globalization has forced vulnerable castes towards informal sector doing menial jobs due to lack of requisite skills. For example, erstwhile untouchables have become manual scavengers.
  • Globalization has created more space for women in the economic workspace. This has led to a significant improvement of women in India’s socio-economic landscape. It has thus, helped in giving flexibility and opportunities to women.


The process of globalization has changed the industrial pattern and social life of people. This has had an immense impact on Indian trade, finance, and cultural system but it is useful only when it will  preserve the environments, life forms and civilizations of this planet.

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