Evaluate the role of technological advancements and international trade agreements on the location of high-tech industries, particularly in the field of information technology and semiconductors.
विशेष रूप से सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी और अर्धचालकों के क्षेत्र में उच्च तकनीकी उद्योगों के स्थान पर तकनीकी प्रगति और अंतर्राष्ट्रीय व्यापार समझौतों की भूमिका का मूल्यांकन करें।
Candidates can start the answer with giving basic idea of food value chain also with giving an example highlight the challenges of FPI in India.
The location of the industry at a particular place is the result of a number of decisions taken at various levels. There are certain non-geographical factors such as technology advancement and agreements that facilitate this decision-making.
Technological advancements and international trade agreements have had a significant impact on the location of high-tech industries:
- Technological advancements have made it possible for companies to produce and distribute products and services more efficiently and at a lower cost, which has led to the decentralization of production and the emergence of global supply chains.
- This has allowed high-tech industries to locate in areas with lower labor costs, such as developing countries, while still being able to access advanced technologies and specialized inputs from other countries.
- International trade agreements, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), have also played a role in the location of high-tech industries.
- These agreements have reduced trade barriers and increased access to foreign markets, making it easier for companies to locate production in countries with lower labor costs and then export their products to other countries.
- This has led to the growth of high-tech industries in countries such as China and Mexico, which have become major exporters of high-tech products.
- Moreover, the increasing use of digital technologies and the increasing trend of outsourcing and offshoring have allowed companies to relocate their high-tech industries to cheaper locations.
- This has led to the growth of high-tech industries in countries such as India, where labor costs are relatively low and there is a large pool of skilled workers with expertise in areas such as software development and data analysis.
Semiconductor and IT industries:
- Access to R&D and advancements: Semiconductor and IT industries rely heavily on R&D to stay competitive and develop new technologies. Locations with strong R&D capabilities and resources, such as universities and research centers, are more likely to attract semiconductor and IT companies.
- Agreement and policies stability: Semiconductor companies are looking for locations that have a stable political environment and robust security measures to protect their assets and intellectual property.
- Government agreements: Many governments offer various tariff, such as tax breaks and subsidies, to attract high-tech industries to their region. Locations that offer attractive incentive packages are more likely to attract IT and semiconductor companies.
In summary, technological advancements and international trade agreements have led to the decentralization of high-tech industries and the growth of high-tech industries in countries with lower labor costs, as well as increased access to foreign markets and specialized inputs.