Day 71 – Q. 2 Assess the impact of climate change on India’s biodiversity, and discuss the measures taken by the government and other stakeholders to protect and conserve vulnerable species.

  • IASbaba
  • February 6, 2023
  • 0
Disaster Management, Environment, GS 3, TLP-UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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Assess the impact of climate change on India’s biodiversity, and discuss the measures taken by the government and other stakeholders to protect and conserve vulnerable species.

भारत की जैव विविधता पर जलवायु परिवर्तन के प्रभाव का आकलन करें, और कमजोर प्रजातियों की रक्षा और संरक्षण के लिए सरकार और अन्य हितधारकों द्वारा किए गए उपायों पर चर्चा करें।


Candidates can start the answer with giving basic idea of climate change in India and then simply highlight its impact on Indian biodiversity also elucidate about measures taken by different stakeholders.


While the world is grappling with the challenges posed by climate change, developing economies like India are particularly vulnerable. Thus, climate risk as a material aspect is going to play a critical role in charting out national-level policies, business strategies and reorientation of finance in an emerging economy like India.


Climate change is having a significant impact on India’s biodiversity. Some of the ways in which climate change is affecting India’s biodiversity include:

  • Habitat loss and degradation: Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and sea-level rise are altering the habitats of many species, causing them to migrate or go extinct.
  • Changes in species distribution: Some species are adapting to changing climatic conditions by moving to new areas, while others are unable to do so, leading to a decline in their populations.
  • Altered phenology: Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are leading to shifts in the timing of life cycle events such as flowering and migration, which can have cascading effects on ecosystems.
  • Increased frequency and intensity of extreme events: Climate change is causing more frequent and intense heatwaves, droughts, floods, and storms, which can have a devastating impact on biodiversity, particularly for species that are already vulnerable due to habitat loss or degradation.
  • Ocean acidification: The ocean absorbs large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, leading to acidification, which is having a major impact on marine biodiversity, particularly for species that have shells, such as mollusks and some species of plankton.

The Indian government and other stakeholders are taking a number of measures to protect and conserve vulnerable species:

  • Legal protection: India has enacted several laws to protect its wildlife, including the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, which provides for the protection of wildlife species and their habitats.
  • Protected Areas: The government has established a network of protected areas, such as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves, to conserve threatened and endangered species and their habitats.
  • Species recovery programs: The government and conservation organizations are implementing species recovery programs to protect and conserve threatened species, such as the Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, and one-horned rhinoceros.
  • Habitat restoration and management: The government and conservation organizations are working to restore degraded habitats and implement sustainable land use practices to reduce the impacts of human activities on biodiversity.
  • The impacts of climate change on India’s biodiversity have far-reaching implications for the country’s natural resources, as well as its human population, which relies on these resources for food, water, and livelihoods.
  • Public awareness and education: The government and conservation organizations are conducting public awareness and education programs to increase understanding of the importance of biodiversity conservation and encourage the public to take actions to protect wildlife.
  • International cooperation: India is working with other countries and international organizations to conserve biodiversity on a regional and global scale, through initiatives such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Global Tiger Initiative.
  • Private sector engagement: The private sector is being engaged to promote sustainable practices and support biodiversity conservation, through initiatives such as Corporate Social Responsibility programs and partnerships with conservation organizations.


These measures are helping to protect and conserve vulnerable species in India, but much more needs to be done to ensure their long-term survival. Effective conservation requires sustained efforts from the government, conservation organizations, and the general public, as well as support from the international community.

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