Kaziranga National Park

  • IASbaba
  • February 25, 2023
  • 0
Environment & Ecology
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Context: Recently, the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has sought a “factual report” on the rhino population enumeration conducted in the Kaziranga National Park in March 2022.

About Kaziranga National Park:

  • Kaziranga National Park is a prestigious national park of India situated in the northeastern part of the country in the district of Golaghat and Nagoan in the state of Assam.
  • It was created in the year of 1904.
  • It was declared a National Park in 1974.
  • It was declared a tiger reserve in 2007.
  • Kaziranga was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO for its unique natural environment in the year of 1985.
  • The park has been identified as an Important Bird Area by the Birdlife International Society as it is home to various species of migrating and inhabitant birds.
  • It is situated on the banks of the river Brahmaputra.
  • It is majorly known for the ‘big four’ species— Rhino, Elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, and Asiatic water buffalo.
  • The National Highway 37 passes through it.
  •  The Diphlu River runs through it.
  •  The landscape is marked by: Tropical moist mixed deciduous forests and tropical semi-evergreen forests, tall grasses, open jungle, and short grasses .

About the One -horned Rhino:

  • The greater one-horned rhino (or “Indian rhino”) is the largest of the rhino species.
  • It is found in Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and India.
  • It is Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List and lies in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act.
  • It is in Appendix I of the  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES):
  • India is home to over 85 % population. It is found in UP, West Bengal and Assam.
  • According to WWF data from 2012, Assam has 91 % of the total Rhino in India which is mainly concentrated in Kaziranga National Park, and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary. Others include Manas Tiger Reserve, Orang Tiger Reserve and Laokhowa Reserved Forests
  • There are five rhino species:
    • Great One horned rhino- Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List.
    • White rhinos – near threatened in the IUCN Red List.
    • Black rhinos in Africa – critically endangered in the IUCN Red List.
    • Javan rhino- Critically endangered in IUCN Red List.
    • Sumatran rhinos- extinct.
  • There are three species of rhino in AsiaGreater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan and Sumatran.
  • Only the Great One-Horned Rhino is found in India.
  • Also known as Indian rhino, it is the largest of the rhino species.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following animals (2021)

  1. Hedeghog
  2. Marmot
  3. Pangolin

To reduce the chances of being captured by predators , which of the above organisms roll up /rolls up /protects its/their vulnerable parts ?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 3

Q.2) With reference to Indian elephants, consider the following statements: (2020)

  1. The leader of an elephant group is a female
  2. The maximum gestation period can be 22 months
  3. An elephant can normally go on calving till the age of 40 years only
  4. Among the States in India, the highest elephant population is in Kerala

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 3, and 4 only


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