Polio Virus

  • IASbaba
  • February 21, 2023
  • 0
Science and Technology
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Context: The West Bengal government announced that it was introducing an additional dose of injectable polio vaccine as part of the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) for children.

About Polio Virus:

  • Polio is a crippling and potentially deadly viral infectious disease that affects the nervous system.
  • Poliovirus can invade the central nervous system and as it multiplies, destroy the nerve cells that activate muscles, causing irreversible paralysis in hours
  • There are three individual and immunologically distinct wild poliovirus strains:
    • Wild Poliovirus type 1 (WPV1)
    • Wild Poliovirus type 2 (WPV2)
    • Wild Poliovirus type 3 (WPV3)
  • All three strains can cause irreversible paralysis or even death. However, there are genetic and virological differences, which make these three strains separate viruses that must each be eradicated individually.
  • The virus is transmitted by person-to-person mainly through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by a common vehicle (for example, through contaminated water or food).
  • It largely affects children under 5 years of age.

About Polio Vaccines:

Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI):

  • The goal of the GPEI is to complete the eradication and containment of all wild, vaccine-related, and Sabin polioviruses, so no child suffers from paralytic poliomyelitis ever again.
  • GPEI has helped countries to make huge progress in protecting the global population from this debilitating disease.
  • GPEI’s four pillars include Routine Immunization, Supplementary immunization, Surveillance, and Targeted mop-up campaigns.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) In the context of vaccines manufactured to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic, consider the following statements:(2022)

  1. The Serum Institute of India produced a COVID-19 vaccine named Covishield using an mRNA platform.
  2. The Sputnik V vaccine is manufactured using a vector-based platform.
  3. COVAXIN is an inactivated pathogen-based vaccine.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following :

  1. Bacteria
  2. Fungi
  3. Virus

Which of the above can be cultured in an artificial/ synthetic medium? (2022)

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3


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