IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 13]
GS 1) Critically comment on the contribution of Dr.Ambedkar to the cause of Dalit empowerment.
The pros of this question MUST contain the constitutional provisions, temple entry movement, the organization which Ambedkar had started and other important points. The cons of this question should have how his request for the communal electorates was in bad taste, his ideological conflict with Gandhiji and other smaller details.
This would be an easy question to solve if one has a basic reading of Ambedkar’s life.
The Top Answer is written by – Aemmy
Ans) Dr. Ambedkar, himself a victim of caste discrimination was proponent of Dalit empowerment who envisioned a casteless and equal India.
1. Created public opinion and raised dalit consciousness through newspapers like MookNayak and organizations like ‘Bahiskrit Hitakarini Sabha’.
2. Led non-violent struggle such as Temple entry movement against dalit’s denial of entry into temples, Mahad March for drawing water from public wells and tanks
3. Poona Pact: For the first time in Indian history it opened up opportunities of education and government service for them and also gave them a right to vote.
4. Supporting the cause for women’s liberation from the caste-entrenched patriarchal system, he resigned from the Nehru’s cabinet when it refused to pass the Women’s Rights Bill.
5. He encouraged dalit to uplift themselves, get educated and change religion if need be.
6. His efforts led to incorporation of Constitutional provisions like prohibition of discrimination, equality of opportunity, abolition of untouchability, reservation in education and jobs, establishment of constitutional bodies like NCSC/NCST.
Some of his efforts can though be seen counterproductive like ‘Communal Award’, his ideological difference with communists and Marxists, his obstinate attitude towards casteism.
But due to his efforts, today we witness an India where oppressed classes walk around with confidence; of course many despicable acts of discrimination and violence against them still occur.
GS 2) Do you think Khap panchayats function within the ambit of the Constitution? If not, what measures have states taken to curb their continued functioning? Critically comment on their unconstitutional nature.
A small introduction should be given to the Khap panchayats and their patriarchal nature. After that, if each question asked is given around 3-4 points, it would be more than sufficient.
Do not forget the directive “critically comment” on their unconstitutional nature.
The Top Answer is written by – Sepoy No. 1446
Ans) The term “Panchayat” in traditional sense means a group of villages. 73rd constitutional amendment makes them constitutional. Khap panchayats are different.They are also a group of villages,working in north India manly in states of Haryana,Punjab,Rajasthan and Western UP but they are not a constitutional body. Their existence is more of a traditional cultural and heritage continuity.
Any organization draws concern if it is not operating as per the established norms of society. Khap Panchayats are infamous for their inhumane,insensitive decrees of honor killings,regulating and controlling girl’s behaviors,mistreating women and lower castes, and for fostering an extremely male chauvinistic culture.Their working actually resonates with principles of Manu-smriti and Talibanic way of working. Due to this they have been declared illegal by honorable supreme court.
Despite their ill-effect on society these panchayats continue to exist because of political patronage.These panchayats are quite powerful.They offer a big vote bank and many politicians come form this background.This nexus makes their abolition an extremely daunting task.
There are no specific explicit laws made which ban Khap panchayat. No legal mechanism exist to regulate their working.Still the existing laws and provisions(like Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989; Criminal law(Amendment) act 2013 etc)can be used to regulate their behavior.
GS 3) How does illegal mining in the forest region threaten biodiversity? Examine.
The question asked here is “how”, and most of the answers have given the symptoms of illegal mining on the biodiversity. Read the question very carefully, and the directive here is “Examine”, so one should write a point on how it affects, substantiate with some facts and examine what kind of impact it has on the biodiversity. 4 such points should be more than enough.
The Top Answer is written by – Anshika
Ans) Mining of minerals is needed for man neccessity for resources for energy , But illegal mining without proper environment assessment has led to many problems
1) Extinction of Species : many Species which are endemic to western ghats are in IUCN list of critically endangered species
2) Water pollution : Illegal mining can change course of rivers and pollute the river , The recent report on NASA speaks wbout the groundwater contamination in north India which is due to illegal mining
3)Land Degradation: Improper mining without EIA can lead to landslides which will threaten the species
4) Deforestation : Land mining leads to habitata loss for animals, Animals which lose habitat will venture in towns and cities which would threaten their existence
Many Commitees were formed to look into the problem of illegal mining
Recently SC even banned mining in Goa , The suggestions from kasturiRangan Committee for western Ghat safeguard need to be implemented , Similarly the other biodiversity hotspots a survey need to be done by eminent environmentalists and their suggestions implemented
Strict laws need to be implemented to protect the biodiversity
Some measures could be
1) A dedicated task force along with forest officials need to survey areas where illegal mining can take place , Safeguarding such place
2) Use of Technology : Drone caeras can be used effectively to catch hold of illegal miners
3) Declaring eco sensitive areas as protected in order to let bio diversity thrive.