Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 14]
GS 1) What are the political and economic reasons behind the persistence of gender inequality in Indian society? Comment.
The question asks for just factors – Political and Economic reasons. This gives us an advantage where we can concentrate wholly on these two factors, thus we can make an exhaustive list. So, dividing the answer into two parts, each with about 100 words should be more than sufficient for this question.
The Top Answer is written by – Sepoy No 1446
Gender inequality remains one of the pressing problems of India.Though the reason for this are mostly sociological,there are certain political and economical factors which contribute to gender inequality.
(a)Women are under-represented in state legislative assemblies and Parliament(less than 15% representation).This is both cause-and-effect of Gender inequality.
(b)Money and Muscle power inherent to Indian political system has made politics a men’s game and women are discouraged at the entry level itself.
(c)Failure to pass women reservation bill.This has led to (a) and (b).
(a)Lax implementation of laws:both constitutional as well as general laws.For example,the system of “Panchayat-pati” or “proxy sarpanch” defies the purpose of 33% reservation offered to women in local bodies.Similarly,laws ban female foeticide and dowry but they continue to plague our society.
(b)Political patronage:The tantrums of khap panchayat is because of political nexus and political patronage.
1.Still 1/3rd of rural families are landless.To support family women has to work on other’s land which increases their vulnerability.
2.Poverty prevents young girl from attending schools and such their full potential is not developed.
3.Corporates still defy gender norms and prevent accession of women to top positions.
Most of these reasons derive their sources from social pattern of society and hence solution to the problem will need an integrated approach,targeting policy changes,policy implementation to changing mindsets of people around.
GS 2) Critically comment on the relevance of Gujral Doctrine to India‘s foreign policy with respect to it’s neighbours.
Gujral’s doctrine is an important foriegn policy directive, so it should be understood very well. The point of asking a “critically comment” question on such a positive policy is to ensure that the aspirants know the doctrine in and out. Even though it has already been asked in UPSC Mains once, it is highly unlikely that it will be asked again this year, but still, from a theoretical perspective, it is good to understand it.
Start off with an introduction explaining who and what Gujral doctrine is, then divide the answer into two parts, each explaining the pros and cons. Since it is not an “analysis” question, but just a “comment” question, enumerating the various important points is enough.
Then end the answer on a positive note saying how it is still relevant today. That’s it.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Anshika
Gujral doctrine was envisioned by IK Gujral the foreign minister in DeveGowda government. The 5 principles of Gujral Doctrine are
1) With countries like SriLanka, Maldives , Bhutan India will not expect reciprocation but will recieve whatever is in good faith.
2) No South Asian country will allow its territory to be used against the interest of other nation.
3) The countries will not interfere in the internal matters of other countries.
4) Settlement of disputes through bilateral talks.
5) Respect for each other’s terrotorial integrity and sovereginity.
The Gujral’s Doctrine was hailed as India the biggest country in SA decided to extend unilateral ties with its neighbours
The Positive Outcomes of Doctrine:
1) The Ganga water sharing treaty with Bangladesh:In accordance with doctrine India concluded a treaty.
2) Freeze of Border with PAC:India for timebeing frooze the border dispute with China and decided to have high level talks.
3) People to people contact with Pakistan and confidence building measures : India extended the friendship with Pakistan and decided to promote people to people contact through tourism , trade etc
It continues to guide Indian policy even today with India working closely with its neighbours Nepal, Bangladesh in providing aid and settling border problems.
The Doctrine isnt free from criticism :
1)India’s arch neighbour Pakistan still continues to support anti terrorist activities in India which is failure of principle 2
2) Sri lanka, Nepal seem to have become more closer to China as they feel India has big brother attitude .
India need to revisit its foreign policy strategies and take more measures to build confidence in its neighbours.
GS 3) Analyse the nature of important internal security threats being faced by India.
This is a very simple and common question which is frequently asked in examinations, but it is extremely necessary to understand the various internal security threats. That is why, we decided to give such an open-ended question, so that all of you can do some basic research and understand all kinds of threats well.
And it is very easy to answer this too, just enumerate all the “internal” security threats and write two-three lines about them where you give a basic analysis.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Nishant
India’s path to development has been burdened with numerous internal security issues. Some are discussed as follows:
North East Insurgency:
A separatist movement since the 1950s, demanding sovereign states in the NE such as Bodoland. It has proved to be a huge impediment in the integration of NE regions with the mainland. It is also a heavy burden on our paramilitary forces.
It finds its origin in the inadequate and shoddily implemented land reforms in post-independent India. Their aim is to overthrow the State for causing them chronic poverty, underdevelopment and socio-economic marginalization
An offshoot of the Kashmir Issue, terrorism today has become the biggest nuisance threatening the whole of India. Cyber terrorism and warfare are its new forms making it more discreet and sophisticated. A huge minority population makes India extremely vulnerable to this end. News reports of ISIS recruitment in India is a case in point.
IB data claims over 20 million illegal migrants from Bangladesh alone and a substantial increase in numbers from African countries (eg. Nigeria) in the last decade. Their crime linkages can’t be ignored.
In addition to these, there are other conflicts like:
1. Communal Violence – Godhra 2002, Muzzafarnagar 2014 etc
2. Trafficking of drugs, arms and humans.
3. Counterfeiting of currency as Indian Economy is still mostly cash-run
4. Organized crime syndicates of land, sand, wood, oil etc.
A strong political will giving primacy to national interests, seamless centre-state cooperation and innovative and integrated policy making is the way forward.