IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 23]
GS 1) Critically discuss the characteristics of tropical cyclones and analyse the extent to which they differ from the temperate cyclones. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Enticer
Ans) Tropical cyclones which are violent in nature basically are of oceanic origin. They are known by different names like typhoons in west pacific and south china sea, hurricanes in the Atlantic ocean, cyclones in Indian ocean.
Characteristics of tropical cyclones :
a) They have a low pressure eye at the center with surrounding high pressure eye wall.
b) The main source of their energy is moisture as they are driven by moisture so are very violent over oceans and as they cross the oceans to land the phenomenon known as landfall and they start losing their energy.
c) They cause storm surges and torrential rains are caused at the eye wall where velocity reaches 250 km per hour.
The devastating nature of some of the mature cyclones make them very dangerous for the coastal regions causing huge loss to life and property. The super cyclone of Orissa was one example.
Tropical cyclones differ from temperate cyclones in following ways:
a) While the tropical cyclones are of ocean origin only, the temperate cyclones originate both on land and ocean.
b) Tropical cyclones are not frontal in nature whereas temperate cyclones are frontal in nature.
c) The area affected by tropical cyclones are small whereas temperate cyclones affect large areas.
d) Tropical cyclones mainly flow in east to west direction but temperate cyclones flow in west to east.
GS 2) Discuss the initiatives taken by the government in addressing the problems of Safai Karamcharis and evaluate their successes. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Anshika
Ans) Safai Karamchari are people working towards maintaing the city clean and provide a hygienic environment
But these Safai karamchari face many problem such as
1)They are boycotted socially and are referred to as kachrawalas
2)The poisonous gases eminating from waste cause many harmful diseases like Aasthma and heart diseases
3)Low wage payment and low financial security
4)Protected gears are not provided which means they use their bear hands which leads to many diseases
Many initiatives were taken by government
1) National Commission for Safai karamchari : The main aim was to safeguard the right of safai karamchari
2) National Safai Karamchari Finance and Development cooperation: To empower workers and help them to work with dignity and pride
3) Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry latrines (Prohibition): These was established to abolish practise of manual scavenging and construction of dry latrines
4) National Scheme for liberation and Rehbilition of Scavengers: To provide adequate training in other identified trades for scavengers and their dependents
5) Valmiki Malin Awas Yojana: To provide housing to the safai karamcharis
Inspite of many schemes by government their efforts have met with limited success and the karamcharis continue to work in inhumane conditions. In order for mission of Swatch bharat to be successful, it is neccessary that safai karamchari are provided with good conditions to work
GS 3) What is Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR)? Why is it seen as a threat and what actions can be taken to counter its effects? (200 Words, 10 Marks)
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Kiran
Ans) Anti Microbial Resistance is the ability of the microorganism to resist against any anti microbial drugs used against it. This is an evolutionary process. In a population of microorganisms, there will be a number of organisms, which have resistance towards the anti body. They evolve through the process of natural selection. The major reason for this is the widespread use of antibiotics. WHO in its reports says that this a global threat and international community should up its ante to counter this.
The threats caused by AMR are:
—- Earlier common and curable disease has become life threatening, Viruses that spread Malaria, tuberculosis etc are reported to have developed AMR.
—- This also results in elongation of the medication and can also delay the diagnosis.
—- The economic impact of such a long medication is huge for a patient of low income groups.
The main reasons for the widespread use of antibiotics are:
—- Widespread availability of antibiotics from 1950 itself.
—- It is cheap and anyone can get it from medical shops without prescriptions.
—- Improper use of antibiotics.
Some suggestions for countering this AMR:
— There should be a stricter regime, which controls the sale and production of antibiotics.
— Pharmacist should give antibiotics only on prescription.
— Since the current Antibiotics are less harmful for the microorganism, new and efficient antibiotics need to be developed. For this, R&D should be encouraged in this field.