IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 24]
GS 1) Comment on the reasons which prompted not only the sepoys but also the civil population to rebel during the 1857 Revolt. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Arvind Singh Rathore
Ans) The Revolt of 1857, although not successful, was the first struggle which almost swept away British rule. Initiated by sepoys, civil population also played a prominent role in this movement; who considered this revolt as a means to show their discontent against British rule.
a) EXPLOITATIVE AND IMPERILAISTIC NATURE OF BRITISH RULE – which was the main reason of popular discontent prevailing in the vast sections of the Indian society
b) SOCIAL REFORMS – Reforms initiated by British such as banning of Sati, widow remarriage etc. and activities of Christian missionaries were greatly opposed by orthodox communities. They felt British are interfering with their social and cultural life
c) INDUSTRILISATION – With the onset of industrialisation, Indian Handloom industry got ruined. Artisans, craftsmen, Traders, merchants etc. lost their means of living.
d) TERRITORIAL EXPANSION POLICY OF BRITISH- The policies such as Doctrine of lapse, doctrine of misgovernance which were used to annex native states; deprived the rulers of their natural right who were supported by the people of their states
e) LAND REVENUE POLICY OF BRITISH AND FAMINES – Permanent settlement; whose main motive was profit making; had immensely affected the life of peasants and were a main cause of recurring famines
f) EDUCATIONAL REFORMS – These reforms introduced by Lord Bentinck, were seen by traditional communities as a means of westernisation
g) The last but major cause was the issue of GREASED CARTRIDGES. These cartridges seal were made up of fat of beef and cow. When Indian soldiers refused to use them, they were compelled to do so. This provided the immediate trigger and led to the Mass Revolt of 1857.
GS 2) Examine the factors causing ‘currency wars’, that is, easing of monetary policy by various national banks across the world, and their impact on the world economy. Also examine India’s role in it. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Coop
Ans) Currency war is competitive devaluation of currency by either easing monetary policy as by USA, Japan, etc or by buying dollars as by China. Many factors have led to currency war:
1)Weak domestic demand: Deflation has affected many economies, leading to low domestic demand. To boost consumption, banks are easing monetary policy.
2) Export led growth: to counter affects of low domestic demand, countries are shifting toward export led growth. Devalued currency provide competitive pricing and higher demand.
3) International pressure: With few countries adopting deliberate devaluation of currency, other countries followed to prevent appreciation of their currency.
Impact on world economy:
1) Devalued currency has benefited many countries in improving trade surpluses. But the sum of trade balance in the world is zero, adversely affecting many countries.
2) Currency friction leads to trade friction, adversely affecting international cooperation
3) Deliberate devaluation implies volatile foreign exchange market, this will hamper investment.
Role of India:
India has denounced deliberate currency devaluation and hasn’t followed others in currency wars, though India uses its forex reserves to stabilize the exchange rates to attract investment.
The world will be better off, if short term and risky measures like currency devaluation are avoided. Relying on fiscal policies to boost domestic demands may provide long term growth.
GS 3) In order to reach 100 GW from the current 3GW solar energy, the solar sector has to match ambition with speed, scale and skill. Examine the factors that determine this and how can the government improve them. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Dark Matter (We have modified the answer to commit to the word limit)
Ans) Factors that determine our amibitous goal of achieving 100 GW:
1. Domestic industry : Much of present solar energy needs are being catered through imports of solar cells and technology. To reduce this dependence domestic industry need to be encouraged.
2. Availability of capital : As solar industry requires huge space and even huge capital. Easy availability of credit determines the success of this goal.
3. State policies : States should play major role and they should accord importance to enact proper legislations to support this industry
4. Renewable purchase obligations : Eventhough RPOs are devised distribution companies are not following them
5. Awareness among citizens : Citizens need to be made aware regarding benefits of solar energy and its sustainability and it is necesary to encourage off grid systems
The Government can improve in following aspects to achieve this goal:
1. Reforms in Electricity Act : Separate renewable energy legislation is needed and problems of off grid installations need to be tackled effectively.
2. Encourage R&D institutes : Promote insitutional setup and research centres to build human resources and encourage innovations in this industry
3. Rationalisation of tarrifs of thermal plants : Thermal plants energy is preferred due to lower prices and they need to be rationalised
4. Grid connections : Improve grid connctions and devise feed in tariff mechanism like in germany
Regional partnerships with neighbouring countries can play effective roles and also the government needs to create an ecosystem where people, industries encourage solar systems citing present global warming dangers.