Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 31]
GS 1) Write a note on the architectural form and style of the Indus valley civilization. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Ankitha G
Ans) Indus valley civilization is the 1st urban civilization in India which shows high degree of expertise in town planning, roads, sanitation.
Town planning was the most important aspect of the IVC. Towns were walled to protect from floods, strangers entering to the town etc.
The upper area of the town was called the citadel, which was walled and contained important buildings socio-polictical and economic purposes.the lower area usually consisted of regular houses of common people. Burnt bricks of particular size was used in building construction.
Architructural gems like the Great Bath in Mohenjadaro, granaries in Harappa, ship dockyard in Lothal, assembly halls show architectural expertise of Indus valley people.
Every house in the Indus valley had sanitation facilities, which was in turn connected to common drainage channel. Intermittent chambers/holes were present in these drainage channels for regular cleaning.
Roads were laid out in grid pattern, where they intersected at right angles like the modern day.
Though religious worship of nature was present, there were no temples built for them,which shows that Harappan people expertise did not spread to religious architecture.
The architecture styles are even now adopted for town planning, roads, sanitation etc which makes the Indus valley civilization pioneers in urban infrastructure and architecture.
GS 2) Critically comment on the relevance of Article 370 of the Constitution of India. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Aspirant
Ans) Article 370 of the Indian constitution provides special provisions to state of J&K. Apart from defense, foreign relations, finance and communications, the government needs permission of State government for impementing any laws
Article 370 has been a contentious issue among India and state of J&K and experts are divided on whether it has to be revoked or it has to be continued
Political issue :
1) Article 370 has been a bone of contention between state and central governemnt and has led to a lot of misunderstanding and distrust among each other The state is also accused of not cooperating and allowing Anti india feelings to hamper while state accuses government of violating fundamental rights of kashmiris and being partial towards J and K
These are basically ideologues isssue and has cause resentment among people this can be avoided if their are talks among 2 levels and also developmental work is undertaken in state
2) Economic : The state of J&K has lot of scope for development. Tourism is one of most attractive sector in J and K and both government can work together to enhance potential this will provide job opportunities to Kashmir youth .
The restriction on only people of jammu and kashmir purchasing land has let people of state have access to their property without any interference from migrants or workers ,or exploitation of state by industries , but this can be relaxed to allow some degree of investment as this might lead to more opportunities
3) Socio- Cultural : Lot of people of Kashmir have developed feelings of alienation from India because of the wrong impression about nation also Indians have very less idea about kashmir and its problem this can be overcome by encouraging more interaction among students .
Also establishing schools of national importance might help the people exchange the ideas amongst themselves might help in removing alienation. But before this it is neccessary that Indian government gain confidence of people and understand their grievances regarding AFSA and other violations.
Article 370 has provided many rights to J&K and helped it join Indian union on its conditions. This article has not failed completely and has neither succeeded completely, so it is time for a debate is conducted on pros and cons of article and a well thought solution being brought about which will help Kashmir to be part of India development as like other states.
GS 3) Critically evaluate the intention behind and the success of setting up of more Special Economic Zones in India. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Jeanedreze
Ans) Special Economic Zones in India, under the SEZ Act 2005 were created with the following objectives in mind:-
1. Increasing exports and encouraging investment from both domestic and international fundings.
2. Dedicated areas for massive employment generation alongwith growth led development.
3. Protection of Indian Industries, though FDI etc was encouraged.
4. Transfer of Technology, improvement of skills and reducing import dependence.
However, unlike China, the SEZs in India are numerous (exceeding 500+) and small in size.In China the SEZs are large and also limited in number. Therefore China is able to achieve economies of scale. Also, China being an export orientated economy benefits from such ventures.The purpose of setting SEZs in China was Manufacturing. However, In India, Services sector has been given precedence over manufacturing eg IT parks in Noida,Chandigarh etc.
Lacuanae that SEZs are facing in India.
1. Multiple regulations through channels like Environment Ministry, Labour Ministry etc
2. Ease of Doing Business has fared India badly this is discouraging for International Market.
3. International implications eg European Crisis etc have discouraged investments.
4. Services Sector is skilled job, therefore SEZs have not been able to produce jobs in large numbers as expected initially.
5. Small sized SEZs make the projects unviable.
6. Lack of resources-Electricity, land etc makes SEZ out of reach for many.
7. lack of Infrastructure eg Development of Ports discourage exports
8. Forest Rights Act, Land Acquistion Acts have not been in sync with Industry needs
The Government has initiated Labor reforms by providing Shram Suvidha portal, Make in India project, Jal Marg etc can go a long way in making SEZs a success.