Q.1) How did Rousseau inspire the clarion call for ‘liberty, equality and fraternity’ which defined the ideological basis of the French Revolution? To what extent did it influence the moral attitudes of people?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Heidi
Ans) France before the revolution was a society based on the maxim ‘Nobles fight, Clergy pray and People pay’ and hence tasted no liberty, no equality and no fraternity. This ideological vacuum was filled by Rousseau’s inspiring thoughts and prolific writings.
– He advocated primacy of the individual. His ‘Social contract’ starts with the most liberating slogan of all times, “Man is born free but is everywhere in chains”. This appealed to the weaker sections for a self realization, and its manifestations were seen during the storming of the Bastille.
– ‘Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Mankind’ reflects his thoughts on how a primitive and corrupt state results into inequality. He advocated that when people makes contract with state the benefit should be equality and public goodness. lead to ‘National convention reforms’, ‘Directory’ and ‘political clubs’.
– He proposed ‘general will’, ‘collective consensus’ should be the order of social contract. It was a new enlightenment for the hitherto divided French Society.
– He taught the education is not just acquiring information but the total development of an individual. and it reflected in Napoleon’s policies.
– He disapproved corruption and injustice and said these have no place in social contracts.
Rousseau’s contributions made enduring influence on ideological and moral attributes of not just French but the entire world.
Q.2) Write about any one personality from medieval India who had a considerable influence on you and how his/her teachings can help one in becoming a good civil servant?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Vikrant Madhusudhan Parab
Ans) Shivaji Maharaj starting his career by capturing ‘Torna fort’ at age of 16yrs united masses against Mughals by inculcating sense of pride and nationality in them. He was born at time when harassment made by Mughals had reached its peak and liberated the masses from injustice and became an inspiration for future generation.
Following things can be possessed by one to become good Civil Servant.
Tackling Problems:- Shivaji was prepared during meeting with Afzalkhan who invited him for Meeting and tried to kill him, but he himself got killed. Some people may try to put your image down, attack on you, cheat you etc . But, one has to be well prepared and alert always.
Check on officials:- He introduced a new Revenue collection system and kept check on his officials that subjects are not harassed. This quality will ensure ‘Good Governance’ to fight corruption, scams etc.
Respect for all:- He showed respect for all Religions and specially for Women. This quality will keep a check on ‘Human Rights Violation’.
Influence on Masses :-Shivaji himself was so devoted to Motherland that People too were ready to die for Motherland. Devotion by civil servant can influence people and help in various schemes like Swacch bharat, Beti bacho beti pado etc where people’s participation is important.
Thus, qualities possessed by Shivaji in Medival can be well applied in 21st century to touch the lives of many Indians!
Q.3) Case Study
Sainath, a 28 year old man met with a severe accident while he was driving his bike. He has been classified as being in a persistent vegetative state for the past 5 years. The doctors in charge of his case have come to the decision that Sainath’s life is no longer of value to him and have requested that they be allowed to withdraw his food supply. It is legal for doctors to withdraw medical support, however, feeding a patient is regarded as part of palliative care and not a medical treatment. Sainath’s parents have taken the case to court in order to prevent his doctors from withdrawing his feeding tubes. If you are adviser to the judge, what advice would you give to the judge?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Santhosh Venkatesh
Ans) The presented situation is a clearly deals with the ethical dilemma that comes with Passive Euthanasia.
The issue of Euthanasia has been a subject of wide debate and with no possibility of getting the patients opinion, the only way is to weigh the pros and cons and give the ethically suitable advice.
Withdraw food supply
– On Medical terms, chances of regaining awareness diminish as time spent on vegetative state increases.
– Some Ethical schools of thought believe that a patient has to die peacefully without suffering and argue is not a bad thing afterall.
Do not withdraw food supply
– A Person might not want to be dead because of his religion or personal beliefs. There have been many examples where undergo appalling pain and do not want to be dead owing to their beliefs.
– His parents may have taken the case to court as Euthanasia may be against their religious beliefs.
– A patient is entitled to receive palliative care as per Aruna Shaunbag case guidelines.
– Although the doctor is not causing death by his action , by committing the act of removing food supplies his intention is to cause death.
– From a Utilitarian point of view withdrawing food supplies would cause a net decrease in happiness as family members are against Passive Euthanasia.
– In future it may become a Rich Vs poor debate and doctors may have exclusive discretions with regard to Euthanasia.
Hence by weighing pros and cons and from a moral and Ethical point view the best advice to judge is to not allow withdrawal of food supplies.