Q.1) ‘Globalization has affected Indian Art to a larger extent as it has affected India Economy’. Discuss the pros and cons of Globalization on Indian Arts.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Mumtaz Ahmad
Ans) The indigenous art forms in diverse fields are the hallmarks of Indian diversity, plurality and culture. Globalisation has impacted these arts both positively as well as negatively.
1. It helped in establishing a global platform for recognition of Indian art forms such as Kathakali dance, kathputli from Rajasthan etc.
2. It provided enhanced livelihood option for hitherto economically devoid but talented artistes.
3. Global acclaim further created tourism opportunities thereby providing avenues of socio-economic development.
4. It helps in strengthening ties with other countries and greater people-to-people contacts on the basis of shared past culture such as Gandhara Art form, Persian paintings etc.
1. Some art forms such as ghazals, madhubani paintings etc have become marginalised and neglected.
2. Consumerism has resulted in artistic fusion and loss of originality.
3. Due to lesser global appeal to some art forms, people have been forced to switch their occupation to ensure livelihood.
The actual benefits of globalisation could be realised through proper government support to streamline all the art forms such as recent govt. intiatives of Nai Manzil, Ustaad etc.
Q.2) Discuss the impact of Western Philosophers and scholars in the development of Indian History.
Q.3) ‘History proved beyond doubt that every Empire that evolved and flourished across centuries created its own grave-diggers’. In this backdrop, do you think that the inherent contradictions that prevailed under the Mughal Empire led to the emergence of British colonial rule in India?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Nithin Kunnaparambil
Ans) Be it Mauryan or Roman, Guptas or Achamenids , every military empire in the world had failed sooner or later. Mughals were no different.
The reason for collapse of Mughals, which were mostly a repercussion of a act self initiated, were
1. Jagirdari Crisis :- The Jagirdars of the Mughal empire became so inefficient and few of them self obsessed that the revenue administration started to fail. Much similar to Mauryans.
2. Larger Empire than it could not be managed. Aurangzeb era in Mughal history saw the zenith of its geographical extent. Hence the insistence on maintaining such huge an empire was a wrong decision.
3. Weak Rulers : After 1707, the rulers like Farukh Siyar and Mohammed Shah Rangeela were too weak to defend Mughal administration.
4. Wasteful expenditure : From ShahJahan Era itself, the Mughal economy started showing signs of deterioration because of wasteful unproductive construction. It is evident in BadshahNama w.r.t Gujarat Famine and Taj Construction
5. Lack of innovation : The Mughals never promoted Science and Technology the way the promoted Artists and architecture.
Hence, a great cultural phase of Indian history was doomed to fail because of their own folly leaving behind the lesson of importance of all round growth and neccessity of democratic institutions of Checks and Balances.
High Order Thinking
Q.1) Even though the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of the sedition law of the IPC and the Law Commission opined that the related provisions ought to remain in the statute books, there is a need to review the relevance of the sedition law. Critically examine.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Mumtaz Ahmad
Ans) Sedition defined under Section 124A of IPC is a colonial law of the 19th century invented to suppress the voice of Indian. The relevance of this law in contemporary situation seems obsolete and full of caveats:
1. The sedition law is in contradiction to the freedom of expression enshrined in article 19(1)(a).
2. The aforesaid law has served as a powerful tool in the hands of government to suppress dissent and protest which lie within restrictions imposed by article 19(2).
3. Previous few decades have observed exemplary large use of sedition law especially against artists, poets, columnists such as the recent case of singer Kovan in TN.
The SC in its historical judgement in Kedarnath vs State of Bihar(1962) has interpreted that a person could not be charged with sedition unless there is an act of ‘incitement to violence’ through speech etc. However the government and legal authorities have used it for the very purpose that the colonial government used it suppress voices of mere dissent.
Since article 19(2) encompasses necessary restrictions imposed on freedom of speech, thought and expression, the continuation of colonial law in contemporary times seems unjustified.
Q.2) Even though India improved it’s rank marginally in the list of countries released by the World Bank in ease of doing business, a segmented analysis of the constituent parameters of the report rather portrays a different picture altogether. Critically examine the issue in light of the World Bank rankings in ease of doing business.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Anish
Ans) In recently released World Bank Ease of Doing Business Rankings India was ranked 130 moving up 4 places. EoD ranking measure a countries performance on 10 indicators namely starting businesses, construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.
Ranking improvement has brought some cheer because:
1) India moved up in rankings, after slipping for four years in a row
2) The report points out that “India is the South Asian economy recording the biggest increase in the distance to frontier score since 2004.” Its overall distance to frontier (DTF) score in 2004 was 40.7, it now stands at 54.68.
3) Starting a Business and getting electricity got big push, main reason for better ranking.
But some skepticism remains because:
1) Access to credit for a business has become marginally more difficult over the past 12 months, resulting in the ranking dropping six places.
2) Low distance-to-frontier scores for the two measures of enforcing contracts and dealing with construction permits. Only Bangladesh fares worse than India among the eight South Asian countries in the 189 nations on the list in resolving commercial disputes.
3) India ranks a lowly seventh above war-torn Afghanistan on the ease of obtaining the approvals necessary to build. Palestinian enclaves of the West Bank and Gaza still rank one place above India, with both registering property and paying taxes
The ranking has improved mainly due to improvement in starting a business and getting electricity. To make a true overall improvement and for success of schemes like Make in India further more reforms such as Nayak Committee report implementation, Bankruptcy law, passing GST bill etc are needed.