Q.1) Evaluate the contributions of revolutionary groups and terrorism to the cause of India’s struggle for Independence.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – TinTin
Ans) Revolutionary groups and organisations had adopted the methods like propagation of ideas, assassination of unpopular officials, militatry conspiracies for their acheivement i.e. complete independence and overthrown of British government by means of force. Their contributions for the independence struggle are-
1.youth who were getting frustrated with the moderate techniques and methods got the other means to achieve their end. e.g: Tilak, Surya sen
2.it helped in growing hatredness among the Indians for foreign rule.
3.their journals, newspaper, books had become constant ideological inspiration for the independence movement. e.g: Yugantar, Kesari, Bharat mata etc.
4.their death defying heroism created a fear among the British establishment in India.e.g.various killing of unpopular officers, conspiracies, bomb thrown by Bhagat singh
5.as many organisation were working upon the ideologies of unity and secularism, hence become a continuous motivation for unity among the Indian masses.
6. they established world wide contacts in quest of arms and shelter leading to coming of ideologies like socialism, communism etc. Ghadhar party, Berlin committee spearheaded this momentum.
However, they gradually faded out and failed to achieve their main goal because:
1.They could not reach to the peasant and workers as it was an urban phenomena.
2.Lack of leadership qualities and communication left many times with failed attempts.
3.British govt. came up with various Acts to repress growing militarism.
4.Adherence to religion had kept muslims away.
At the time when the debate of good terrorism and bad terrorism has taken global stage; Indian revolutionary groups had fought for a nobel cause to free their nation from foreign rule so to label them under terrorism would not be appropriate.
Q.2) “Non-Cooperation Movement could not bring Swaraj in one year but it did give a new direction and energy to the National Movement”. Comment.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – IFS_Adi
Ans) Gandhiji promised to Indians in 1920 that if Non Corporation Movement was fully implemented (i.e. all resolutions as surrendering titles, resigning govt posts, boycotting foreign good , strict non- violence etc followed) throughout nation then Swaraj would be ushered within an year. Unfortunately this dram of Gandhiji could not materialise but NCM did prepare Indians for the future movements, in following ways.
1. Ensured Hindu- muslim unity. The people from all religions put forth united front.
2. Mass movement which saw active participation from peasants, mill workers etc made this movement national in character opposed to previous elite movements
3. It asserted political leaders of full support from people of all spheres ie lawyers, students, housewives, etc .
4. Except for madras, all India gave full support and faith to the movement. It was no longer a regional movement and highlighted single objective of Swaraj
5. Boycott of foreign clothes, patronising khaki and charkha gave Indians reason to be proud of historical and cultural heritage.
6. Drastic decrease in imports and Brit govt revenue exposed economic vulnerability of British, which all national leaders exploited till India attained independence.
Thus the movement acted as a litmus test to further movement and trailer for the movements that ensued the coming years.
Q.3) “Nationalist movement in India before the arrival of M. Gandhi was a movement representing the classes as opposed to the masses”. Critically analyse
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Anish
Ans) Indian National Movement can broadly be divided into 3 phases, Moderate, Extremist and Gandhian.
Pre congress organisations and Congress during moderate phase was essentially dominated by Zamindars, government servants etc. They focused mainly on the issues pertaining to them. The moderate methods petition and prayer did not involve the masses. They felt the masses were not ready to be part of such a process. When issues were dominated by interest of classes such as Zamindars, it naturally went against the peasants who were part of the masses.
The extremist phase saw further more involvement of the masses. The most important being the Swadeshi movement which had mass participation by students, women etc.Tilaks methods of celebrating Ganesh utsav etc was done to increase masses participation. This was partly successful though it alienated the Muslim community. The boycott movements saw emphatic participation. Even Home Rule MOvemnts of Annie Beasant and Tilak saw much wider participation.
Gandhiji used the help of these Home Rules to increase participation in Khilafat movement shows that there was wider participation earlier. But it suffered form being much more local in nature and to some extent limited. Gandhi’s Satyagraha and charisma to take masses along turned the course of NAtional movement making it truly the movement of the masses.
High Order Thinking
Q.1) Myanmar witnessed the largest democratic exercise in it’s recent history when elections were held under the close observation of the global community. However, the very fact that military junta still controls 25% of the seats in the Parliament and the rights of Rohingyas Muslims and other ethnic minorities were not central to the electoral process may defy the optimism that surrounds this democratic experiment. Critically analyse.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Mumtaz Ahmad
Ans) The recently held democratic elections in Myanmar, witnessing more than 80% voter turnout, is a giant leap towards change, a change from military rule to democracy. Nevertheless, there are various issues that needs to be addressed:
1. Myanmar is a disciplined democracy, with 25% of the seats in parliament being reserved for the serving army officers, a major hurdle towards democratization.
2. Some of the crucial portfolios such as internal affairs, defense and and border security are reserved for military junta.
3. There are many armed ethnic groups, who despite the peace accord signed, not ready to give up guerrilla warfare.
4. The majoritarianism of the Buddhist groups has further created religious tensions and brutal clashes with the Rohingyas muslims.
5. The Rohingyas muslims who were eligible to vote in the 90s democratic elections were this time denied their voting rights thus posing a question on the model of democratic process being adopted.
Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy (NLD’s) long pending demand for a transformation of an authoritative regime is going to bore fruits of democracy but there is an urgent need to make the process more participative, progressive and justice driven.
Q.2) Sports administration in India is in dire need of reforms. An intervention at the highest political-administrative level is the only way that can dismantle the sports-business-politics nexus. Analyse the statement in light of the recent findings of the Mudgal Committee.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Mani
Ans) Corruption, bureaucratic interference & political nexus tarnish the image of any country’s sports administration. Mudgal Committee report in the backdrop of IPL Scam highlights this issue:
1. Sports administration is suffering from extreme political interference.
2. Funding problems, lack of professionalism has given rise to bureaucratic hassles.
3. Selection of board members is fraught with conflict of interests. Recent BCCI issue in the cricket administration highlights this.
4. Bias towards certain sports. Although being the national game, Hockey suffers a the hands of cricket in terms of funding, administrative support and infrastructure.
5. Gender bias, sexual harassment is also prevalent. Recent issue of suicide of some badminton players in Kerala highlight this.
6. Politics has been linked to sports and this has given rise to corruption, betting scandals, favoritism.
7. Members of board have owed in sports teams due to absence of strict regulations.
There is a need to make sports administration more accountable and transparent. India where certain sports are treated as “religion”, sports must be considered as a public good (as highlighted by SC with respect to cricket and functioning of BCCI).
1. Sound framework for selection of members of committees solely on merit.
2. Political interference must be reduced as sports should be administered by people who have been in sports.
3. More openness in dealing with corruption. Fast tracking the cases.