1. It is not a student’s job to get engaged in politics. Ideology and politicization have no role to play in a students’ life. Do you agree? Critically comment.
Write a short introduction.
Reason why student should enter into politics:
The debate culture in student community should be encouraged to promote free thinking, creativity and rational thinking,
Debates though politics veer around to discuss and reveal the flaws of the government programs. It encourages participative democracy.
Recent debate in JNU on the topic of Nationalism and Sedition has helped the society and to discuss and debate and provide society a clear meaning of the topics. They bring a different viewpoint on the discussion table
Being future of nation, they need to have interaction with problems which exist in reality & can’t be found solely in books. For the overall development of the individual as well as the nation their participation is necessary.
People over 18years of age have a legal right to vote, and those above 21 can run in the elections for Local bodies, if they are treated as mature enough to judge who will run the country, they are mature enough to judge how to run the country.
Historically, the freedom movement in India got its strength from student leaders like Bhagat Singh, CR Das etc.
Current MPs as well as cabinet ministers were active political workers during their college days, eg :Arun Jaitley.
Why students should not enter politics:
University being a place of learning, all energy must be directed towards education, and subject specialization.
Political parties can take manipulate students for short electoral gains, jeopardizing students future.
Party animosity can find way into the campus and can lead to riots, murders etc.
Antisocial elements may vitiate the university campus with the support of political parties.
Anti progressive ideas and stereotypes like untouchability, casteism etc. will be further get strengthened.
Based on the above arguments, give a suitable conclusion.
Best answer: TITO
No I do not agree with the statement that it is not student’s job to get engaged in politics. As during the non-cooperation movement and civil disobedience movement it was the students who took part in active politics which brought a major change in the youth of that time.
Student’s non involvement in politics has following consequences. Cons: 1.The knowledge student is confined to academics which may not be useful in the long run.
2. In future if he rises to a political position his decision would confined to data rather than the practical problems of the day.
3. The educational institutions are places where the social change starts and it is through student’s involvement in active politics. Absence of their involvement is not conducive for progressive society like India.
4. Education itself has a wide dimension and politics may be a part of learning. Therefore it would be against education.
5. It keeps the student’s way from the current political situation in the country.
Pros: 1.It will keep them focused in the education.
2. It will keep away students away from political and ideological thought which might have created differences among the fellow students.
3. The political thoughts may not polarize his thought therefore he may develop his individual outlook.
4. It will decrease the influence of political parties over institution and which may in turn reduce the corruption at higher levels of office who are nominated by political parties.
Students should actively involved in politics not promote any ideology or thought of any political but to form the nucleus of change in the current society.
2. It is ironical that despite a large number of well meaning constitutional provisions and laws aimed at protecting and safeguarding the welfare and interest of the disabled communities, the process of marginalization of people with disabilities has gone on unabated. Paradoxically, at the root of such marginalization are the laws themselves. Discuss.
The constitution of India has guaranteed the full protection to the rights of the disabled persons. The preamble of the constitution embodies the concept of social justice and equality of status and opportunity to all the people in India. Art 14 &16 of the constitution guarantees equality of opportunity to all citizens of India. In India following are the list of legislation and regulations which protect and govern the rights and interest of disabled persons.
1) Persons with Disabilities act. 1995.
2) Mental Health act 1987.
3) Rehabilitation council of India act 1992.
4) The National Trust for welfare of persons with Autism, cerebral palsy, Mental Retardation and multiple disabilities act 1999.
The difference start from the fundamental right itself that under right to equality in which .right against discrimination only on the basis of religion, race, gender, place of birth and caste there is not mention of disability(with some exceptions) is not provided.
There is no separate provision in census to calculate disabled persons.
Non implementation of the right to opportunity in public services according which 3% reservation are provided to disabled people but according to recent report only 0.12% of vacancy is filled.
Disability is a recently acknowledged discrimination. Laws made were based on Article 15 and 16 that prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex, caste and ethnic origin and excluded disability.
Definitions of the ‘disabled’ like blindness, deaf, motile disability etc., are not clear and highly ambiguous. This has led to the discretion of the certifying authorities and welcomed corrupt practices.
In order to be certified as ‘physically handicapped’ under PWD Act, he/she must he disability more than 40%. However, the law is silent on quantification of disabilities. Without, this certification, disabled persons cannot accrue benefits granted by the government.
The existing laws arrange for mainly social compensations.
Acts such as RTE Act has hardly any clauses related to the education of disabled children where education is the fuel for welfare in the modern societies. The PWD Act covers only seven broad categories excluding many learning disabilities like autism etc. Thus, those children get admission in mainstream institutions that lack basic teaching aids for the children.
Political and civil rights such as freedom from cruel and inhuman treatment, freedom of expression, right to marriage, etc are excluded.
Laws deny property rights to mental health disabled.
Section 19 of the Mental Health Act (Admissions to institutions under special circumstances) is abused for dumping women. Disabled women are married off to old men resulting in widowhood, abandonment and divorces with NO LEGAL RECOURSE to their aid.
Non-inclusion of aged people (most disable prone) in various schemes; restricted definition of ‘Public’ spaces (for adherence to NBC and Accessible India campaign), etc.
Necessities of the disabled are not properly identified under Municipal Acts in building civic infrastructure and no law has raised objections over this.
Most the laws are framed keeping the urban disabled in mind the rural disabled who are more in number compared urban. For example the recent Sugamaya bharat scheme is centred on state capitals and cities.
The marginalization of disabled people within the main stream society requires over hauling the colonial laws, change in the mind set of the people, more education regarding disabled people to the few who affect their lives such as school and college teachers, Doctors, Police Administration etc. It is important to provide them more welfare schemes and greater employment opportunities.
Best answer: CNo
India is signatory to UN convention on Rights of persons with disabilities. According to it India should provide enabling atmosphere so that disabled can enjoy status as full and equal member of society.
But laws are nearly failed to provide such atmosphere to disabled who form nearly 2.21 % of population as per census 2011. Laws failed because: -Disabled are not considered as holder of rights but are considered just as passive recipient of schemes. Welfare is dependent on discretion of state.
Supreme Court’s judgment which provided reservation of 3% for disabled in all government jobs is significant move rights based approach.
-Persons with disabilities act 1995 does not addresses concerns of female disabled concern of sexual violence against them is not addressed. Female disabled are often subject to force sterilization or hysterectomy due to fear of sexual violence; this concern is also not addressed by the act.
-neglect of mentally challenged persons, health act 1987 is not comprehensive. It does not address issue of proper rehabilitation and accommodation of mentally ill in society.
-some laws exclude disabled like as per Representation of people act 1951 mentally unsound person cannot vote. Also marriage laws limits mentally unsound from marriage.
Need is to implement Article 41 of constitution in spirit. According to it disabled should be provided with Right to work and assistance in education. Also need is to adopt rights based approach where state should provide disabled friendly infrastructure and services.
3. Why are man-animal conflicts on the rise in India? Identify the high risks/vulnerable zones and also suggest what corrective measures can be taken to avoid these conflicts?
Man-animal conflict is on the rise the country over as population growth forces humans to clear forests and encroach upon corridors of natural movements of animals for land, food and shelter. As a result animals are bound to stray into human territory, forced to enter villages and farms leading to loss of lives, destruction of crops and property. A poisoned tiger in the wild or an electrocuted elephant near a field point to man’s own failure to find a solution to this age-old conflict.
The other main reasons why man-animal conflicts on the rise in India are –
1) ‘Politics’. Such conflicts are the direct result of environmental protection getting thoroughly politicised. The implementation of environmental laws has become an instrument of politics.
The decision by the various governments to allow construction and tourism activity in the forest areas is an example of political and business interests overriding ecological concerns. Such a move is bound to force wild animals stray into the nearby cities or villages in near future. (For example, regions of Aravalli Hills, Jim Corbet National Park in Uttrakhand)
2) ‘Human settlements’ and ‘developmental projects’within forest areas. Forests are being cleared for farming (or being plundered for timber by poachers) and with human settlements encroaching into wildlife territories.
Developmental projects like mining activities, building dams and other commercial activities fragments habitats and hence animals change their course of movement.
Forest areas of mineral rich regions include MP, West Bengal, Telangana, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Bihar etc.
3)Confluence of roads, ‘highways and railway’ lines. Road accidents due to speedier vehicle cause numerous deaths of animals. There were many instances of animals hit by trains on railway lines. Example: Western Ghats (Bandipur – Nagarhole – Waynad stretch) and Aravalli range.
4) ‘Natural’ Factors. Increased heat wave conditions, dry weather clubbed with water shortage, disasters, as a result of climate change and global warming may lead to more man-animal conflict. For example, recent forest fires in Uttarakhand, drought in various regions like Marathwada, Bundelkhand region, flood prone areas of Ganga, Kosi and Bramhapura (Manas and Kaziranga).
Measures to avoid these conflicts (Should include some of the following)
Highest protection should be accorded to water augmentation areas such as Shola forests, grass lands, riverine forests and swamps by creation of water troughs.
Natural bridges or tunnels should be constructed in the areas that are already fragemented to facilitate the passage of animals and reduce the loss of wildlife in accidents. Strict adherence to ban on night travel through certain roads.
Effective implementation of forest and environment conservation laws. Green belt and buffer zones should be strictly made free of any construction and other human activities.
Use of technology – Radio collaring of elephants, cameras and drones for monitoring animals’ movements and solar fencing of transition zones.
Relocating people to areas away from national parks and protected areas and ending tourism in core areas of biosphere reserves as ordered by SC and NGT.
Trenches to prevent wild elephants and elephant sanctuary-cum-ecotourism centres, strictly adhering to the provisions of forest laws.
Periodic assessment of food availability and other living conditions of animals in forests. Training forest officials to tackle any sudden man-animal conflict.
Best answer: Govind Singh Tanganiya
To protect and improve the wildlife and develop compassion for living creatures is one of the Fundamental Duties enshrined in Article 51A of the Indian Constitution. However, many natural and man-made factors lead to man-animal conflict.
1) Drought in various regions like Marathwada, Bundelkhand recently has led to shortage of drinking water and food for animals leading to their migration.
2) Forest fires lead to huge migration of forest animals towards human habitats
3) Earthquakes, Tsunamis etc.
1) Deforestation, acquiring land for construction of dams, industries, railways, highways etc.
2) Traditional cultivation methods like shifting cultivation still practiced by majority of tribal groups lead to burning of land threatening various animals.
3) Over-grazing of pasture land by animals leading to shortage of food later.
Some of the vulnerable zones where man-animal conflict is seen most include protected areas like Corbett National Park, Manas wildlife sanctuaries, Kaziranga national parks, drought-hit zones like Marathwada, Bundelkhand etc.,
Steps to avoid man-animal conflict:
1) Strict regulations for tourists visiting national parks, wildlife, tiger reserves etc, ban on hunting in vulnerable zones etc.
2) Increasing the forest cover by suitable afforestation techniques and migration of animals to these areas.
3) Creation of wells, ponds and lakes in drought hit areas and the use of tourist and CAMPA funds to arrange for food and fodder for animals in such areas.
4) Immediate steps need to be taken by authorities to rehabilitate animals in disaster hit zones to safer places.
Men need to understand that animals are important part of the ecosystem and it is necessary to live in harmony with each other for sustainable development of both.