1. Waste generation is a severe fallout of urbanization in India. What solutions would you recommend for effective waste management? Discuss.
This is a very straight forward question and most of you have mentioned very good points. Again, this is a factual question and if you want you can write an essay on this but these types of question check the art of writing maximum points in minimum words.
One common query of many candidates is that, whether they should mention the effects of urbanization on waste generation or not?
Since the question directly asks about your recommendations about the solution, you will be given marks on the number of diverse points that you write about the waste management.
But ideally you should include some points on how urbanization is responsible in waste generation. This will provide connectivity and flow to your answer. But remember that it should only be mentioned in the introduction. Try to finish it in two to three lines with the help of commas and semicolons.
An intelligent way is to mention the problem and solution in the same statement. For example, “In migration causes population pressure on urban infrastructure. Creating employment and improving rural infrastructure will reduce waste generation in urban areas.”
Second most important thing is, the question does not specifically mention about household waste only, so you need to cover all types of wastes.
Thirdly, Problem of waste management does not only include waste disposal. It includes all the steps from waste generation, waste collection and segregation and its proper disposal. So your answer should include aspects to improve all these steps.
Since many people have written similar and good points, there can’t be a single model answer. The first answer that we are including is not actually a model answer but an extensive answer covering all the major points. Since it is very long it cannot be called a good answer but we have included it for your knowledge.
Best answer 1: Abha Goel
India is the fifth largest waste generator and also, the “dump destination” along with Africa for the global waste. With increasing urbanization to the tune of 28% as per the latest census and burgeoning population, India is in dire need of effective waste management policy.
This can be done in following manner:
At individual level:
Following the three R’s ( Reuse, Recycle, Re-collect)- Customers can be made aware for efficient use of products and they should be encouraged to make optimal use. Also, they can be encouraged to separate out and throw waste as per biodegradable and non biodegradable categories.
Energy efficient appliances- It involves using the appliances that have been approved by the government and have higher star rating. Also, the poor people can be encouraged to participate in Bachat lamp yojana or LED lelo yojana so, that GHG emission is low and also, such products are more eco- friendly.
At society level:
Role of urban local bodies and mohalla samitis- They can play significant role by addressing the grievances of the localiites and clean the area on regular basis. They can come up with customer feedback option and best mohalla samiti or ULB can be rewarded for keeping the area clean of dumped waste. Regular drives can be organised to collect waste products as a door to door service.
scientific dumping like Vermi composting and sanitary landfills- There is a scarcity of landfills and sites for dumping goods. The waste land can be used for scientific dumping.
Optimal use of resources in industries and installment of treatment plants- The Environmental Impact Assessment and Solid waste management rules can be applied strictly to make companies comply with the rules and also, water affected by waste should be reused in plants for cooling etc.
Use of ICT and “ecological and carbon footprint ” tracker technology- The ICT can be used to track the performance of various departments and the use of calculators to let people know of their contribution towards waste generation can be promoted. Further, NGOS can be involved and student volunteers can be trained to make scientific use of the products.
Role of government:
Implementation of E-waste management policies- The recent policy on e-waste are commendable and should be implemented:
a) Producer liability- he should be encouraged to collect the used goods and use it from the scratch and customers can be rewarded for reselling the products used.
b.) Involving companies and private sector in managing waste by re using and recycling the obsolete computers and tablets.
c.) creating a separate fund for properly implementing waste management policies.
Use of renewable resources- The use of renewable products and biodegradable products should be encouraged.
Rewards and punishment i.e. following the polluters pay principle
Effective implementation of Swachch Bharat Abhiyan and integration of departments at various levels.
Best Answer 2: Goalias
According to estimate by the end of 2030 almost 50% population of India will be living in cities. Bound by mandate of Goal 9 and 11 of SDG, India is committed to provide sustainable urbanization.
Waste generation is natural corollary of urbanization. All forms of waste including dry, wet and hazardous demands concentrated strategy for waste management. It includes
Segregation of waste into dry, wet and hazardous as mandated by Solid Waste management policy. Bangalore and Mysore following this model
Follow Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recovery model to reduce the hills of waste in suburban of cities
Storm drains and sewers should be differentiated and cleaned at regular interval to reduce urban flooding
Polluters pay principles should be introduces in hazardous, construction and large waste generation agencies
Minimum use of Polythene and plastics should be encouraged and according to new plastic waste management policy distributer should be responsible for collection
Effective management of medical waste with increased facilities of inclinators near hospitals
Use of Biomethanation to generate electricity from municipal waste and use residue as manure under Policy of City Compost
Instill behavioral change in people by promoting programmes like Swatch Bharat
Slums sprawl, messy and unplanned urbanization has complicated the task of waste management however to develop smart cities it is important to develop smart management of wastes.
Best Answer 3: Vidhu
With the increase in population, increase in the share of services and decrease of agriculture in economy and migration from rural to urban areas for job opportunities, urbanization has increased in India at a rapid pace.
As urbanization increases the level of consumption of goods increases which in turn increases the amount of waste generated. The problem arises when the rate of generation is far more than the rate of effective disposal of the waste.
Some of the solutions for effective waste management can be:
more emphasis on the 3 Rs Reduce, Recycle Reuse of our day to day items to avoid waste generation
2. strict implementation of waste segregation (blue , black, red waste disposal bins)
spreading awareness and making proper waste disposal a national pride (Swacchh Bharat Abhiyaan) with cooperation among all stakeholders
more executive and financial empowerment and autonomy of the municipal board so that they can implement waste management properly
use of ICT and mobile apps to provide feedback by the public for inefficient waste disposal
proper implementation of existing laws for garbage and waste disposal (anti spitting law, pollution of rivers)
more funding on waste to energy products through MLAD funds to dispose waste properly
Waste management is a tricky task in India due to the huge population. Yet with the use of innovation and cooperation this menace can be effectively managed to make our cities clean and hygienic.
2. Discuss the changing gender composition of migration in India. Which factors have led to these changes? Examine.
Note: Many have failed to answer adequately to the first part of the question – ‘To discuss the changing gender composition of migration in India’.
While giving factors, try to provide or organize your points under broad headings. Important points should come first and least priority once at the end would be appreciated.
Provide Census data or NSSO/UN survey report about the pattern of migration in India in the introduction.
According to 2001 Census, of 309 million migrants based on place of last residence, female migrants constitute 218 million while it is 91 million for male.
Part I: Discuss thechanging gender composition of migration in India
Mostly male migration was studied on basis of economic parameters and female migration was studied under social reasons of marriage or as dependants.
The globalisation process in the Indian economy has brought about a shift in the pattern of migration of females.
Women from all socio-economic backgrounds migrate, giving rise to varied trends and patterns which also continue to evolve.
Changing gender composition of migration is an important factor influencing socio-economic development of the country as it has greater potential for reducing poverty, bringing about social change and also meeting the Sustainable Development Goals.
Part II: Factors responsible for feminization of migration
Divide the points according to Economic, Socio-Cultural, Political, Push and Pull factors and Demographic factors etc.
Note: Below best answers provides the different factors, so go through the same points as a reference.
Census provides following reasons:
Especially in most developing regions more females are migrating independently, i.e. not just as dependants or family members, and more are making a difference for development
Consider international migration – women are migrating in far higher numbers, both as family members and independently, voluntarily or involuntarily
UN survey says – In Asia and Africa, more women have become primary wage earners in domestic and cleaning jobs, child rearing, care of the elderly, and as nurses and hospital aides.
Best answer 1: Aim_2016
(Good, only you have addressed first part of the question adequately)
As opposite to the previous trend of dominant male migration in society, the present society constitutes females as dominant number of migrants as can be seen in 2011 census statistics, where 218 million, out of 309 million migrants, were females. Mostly male migration was studied on basis of economic parameters and female migration was studied under social reasons of marriage or as dependants. The globalisation process in the Indian economy has brought about a shift in the pattern of migration of females. Women from all socio-economic backgrounds migrate, giving rise to varied trends and patterns which also continue to evolve.
The factors which led to these changes include:
Due to increased demand of women in service sector, which necessitates spacial mobility
Extreme poverty in certain rural areas makes it imperative for both male and female to work for a sustainable livelihood
Due to demand of trained health personnel abroad, several Indian nurses have travelled to West Asia in recent past
Prevalence of nuclear families which has decreased burden of social responsibilities on modern women
Decreasing sex ratio in several states have compelled the local males to marry girls from other regions of country
Increased education facilities available to girls have made them eligible for several jobs within and outside of their state/ country.
Such factors have helped women in increasing their exposure to different societies, and resulting in higher migration activity among women and intermingling of ideas of different regions of the nation.
Best answer 2: ASHUTOSH
Recently migration pattern among the people have changed and has been more for female as compared to male which can be gauged from census data of 2011 and 2001.
Various reasons can be cited for the same-
More nuclear families, less land holdings, poor resource distribution, poor health infrastructure, more patrichal mindset, atrocities against women, less respect, honor killing, kahp Panchayat etc have resulted into more migration towards cities and urban areas.
More mechanization of agriculture, less labour requirements in agriculture, more opportunities in urban areas in term of employment, better health, education, infrastructure, better living conditions and more financial needs of children etc require more women to work with thier male counterparts
More rights to women on same footing with male counterparts, more share and aspirations of women in family , various policy changes in various areas favouring female participation lie recent maternity bill amendment, more female workforce in various sectors like police, defence, IT, etc.
Various natural calamities like heavy floods in Uttarakhand, landslide in hilly regions etc have prompted many families to sift to safe and secure urban and suburban regions.
Higher migration pattern among women necessitate the requirements of various social , economic, political, environment,legal and behavioral changes in society and among people so that smooth transition can take place and government also uitiise this opportunity to provide various development needs in long run so that our society can become sustainable and egalitarian and more equitable, and inclusive
3. Urban security ecosystem in Indian cities is not conducive for women. Do you agree? What are the associated issues and challenges? Elaborate.
Indian urban space is increasingly becoming unsafe for it women population. There has been increasing instances of crimes against women. As per NCRB reports, there is a crime against a woman every 2 minutes. There are incidents like eve teasing, chain snatching, acid-attacks etc. happening daily in cities.
Women dis-empowerment:- women are reluctant to choose late night jobs, thus made their presence in offices low.
Poor or inefficient security systems (poor coverage of CCTV cameras, etc.), low police to population ratio i.e., only 106 policemen for 1 lakh population, with low ratio of women police officers.
Increased case related to dowry and of domestic violence in urban areas.
Increased cases of physical mental sexual harassment at work places for organized and unorganized sector women.
The patriarchal mindset prevents the women from reporting the cases of eve teasing and hence culprits become repeat offenders.
Even if the administration is prompt in catching the culprits and presenting a robust charge sheet, the judicial process is so long that justice is invariably delayed.
Lack of funds, personnel and training to the police who find it hard to implement good initiatives.
Lack of avenues for information attainment or grievance redressal—low number of female police force compounds the problem. The need is to sensitize the forces while increasing female participation.
Poorly lit areas in the city which makes their travel unsafe and makes them vulnerable to crime, Poor public transport system with ill trained and insensitive staff.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Nazia
Urbanisation India is taking place at a rapid pace. The cities of India are not usually pre planned, societies and complexes come up anywhere permitted by the government.
1.The biggest factor harming the security of women in India cities is lack of Public security cameras. Though newer buildings and malls may have one, the older parts of most of the cities provide many nooks and corners for criminals.
2.There is no or very less patrol police in the cities and those too do not cover every place or area.
3.The response time of the police is very slow, even if called at the time of distress, they usually reach after the crime is committed.
4.Many organised work places are not properly connected to the women cell this makes reporting misconduct of seniors in the work place difficult as it can directly affect the livelihood of the female employee.
5.Majority of women are employed in unorganised sector, are poor and illiterate. they are not capable of making complaints hence are marginalised and exploited easily and without fear.
6.The rapid pace of life has disconnected people to a large extent too. People are so engrossed in themselves that they forget to ask about a missing neighbour.
The challenges faces by the government in such scenario include
Formation of dedicated task force for crime against women
speed up the judicial process.
Stricter laws against all kinds of offences.
Instead of politicising the issues action needs to be taken.
Educating the marginalised women about their rights.
Yet the various plans and policies by government like fast track courts, severe punishment for sexual offence women commission, Nirbhaya fund, etc are making it comparatively easier for women to live with dignity.
4. The regulatory functions of the State must be based on a right based approach and should be non-exclusionary. Analyze the statement in the light of the proposed surrogacy law.
Your introduction should outline the need of rights in modern state and why regulatory functions of state should follow right based approach and should remain non- exclusionary.
In this part, you should discuss about the major controversies related to surrogacy law which shows that few of the provisions are against the fundamental rights and whose impact is exclusionary for some sections like transgender, single parent etc.
You should conclude it by saying that a nation like India cannot afford to compromise its basic democratic ethos. The law should reflect the idea of inclusion and it should empower the citizen.
Important facts related to surrogacy (regulation) bill 2016
According to the Bill, only Indian couples, who have been married for at least 5 years can opt for surrogacy, provided at least one of them have been proven to have fertility-related issues.
Only close relatives, not necessarily related by blood, will be able to offer altruistic surrogacy to the eligible couples.
The new Bill has put a complete ban on commercial surrogacy.
It also bans unmarried people, live-in couples and homosexuals from opting for altruistic surrogacy. Now, foreigners, even Overseas Indians, cannot commission surrogacy.
A woman can become a surrogate mother only for altruistic purpose and under no circumstances she will be paid for it, although payment can be made towards medical expenses.
Surrogacy regulation board will be set-up at both Central and State-level.
The law will be applicable to the whole of India, except for the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
All Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) clinics will need to be registered.
Surrogacy clinics will be allowed to charge for the services rendered in the course of surrogacy, but the surrogate mother cannot be paid.
Commercial surrogacy, abandoning the surrogate child, exploitation of surrogate mother, selling/import of human embryo have all been categorised as violations that are punishable by a jail term of at least 10 years and a fine of up to Rs 10 lakh.
11.Under the new bill, the clinics will have to maintain records of surrogacy for 25 years.
The surrogate child will have the same rights of as that of a biological child.
The recent surrogacy bill aimed to regularize the debated practice and bring in transparency and structure. But it also drew some sharp critical comments as well.
Ever since the birth of the concept of State, the most popularly accepted approach has been the rights-based one where rational individuals come together and delegate some of their rights to an entity called State for a just and ordered political society. All the individuals are equal and enjoy equal rights to live a dignified life.
This bill though contains some provisions that infringe upon some of the basic rights of certain categories of citizens and a few bizarre exclusionary principles which are not supported by any empirical study.
– Commercial surrogacy is banned, which though raises ethical questions, is well within the right of a person to use her body the way she wants.
– Single parents and LGBT community are not allowed for this process which is right out discriminatory.
– Even couples can go for surrogacy only after 5 years of marriage. 5 is totally arbitrary here.
But this is to be understood that this issue also contains complex ethical principles, potential to affect citizenship norms and human rights of those who are affected adversely. Hence, hard locking to a rights based approach should be avoided here and a comprehensive point of judgement should be taken.
Chikungunya is a disease caused by the Chikungunya virus. It is transmitted to humans by 2 mosquito species Aedes Aegypti and Aedes albopictus who carry the virus as a vector.
When these mosquitoes bite an infected person, they themselves get infected and thus transmit the virus when they bite a healthy person.
The symptoms of chikunganya which begin in 3-7 days are:
Fever, headache, fatigue
Rashes in the body
The symptoms do not result in death but they can be very painful and disabling in nature.
There is no vaccine available for treatment. It can be prevented by:
Controlling the mosquito population by limiting their habitat: not allowing water to collect and stagnate, putting oil / DDT/eucalyptus oil on standing water to kill their breeding population
Emptying all waste baskets, cans, waste utensils to avoid collection of water for mosquitoes to breed
Wearing full body covered clothing
Using mosquito repellent, nets to prevent them
Use of window screens, mesh to keep them outside
R&D to develop GM mosquitoes which make the mosquito population sterile
Implementing cleanliness in our surroundings to prevent breeding of mosquitoes
The menace of mosquitoes is high in the tropical and poorer nations. If proper cleanliness and safety measures with awareness is implemented, the effect and repercussion of this disease can be contained effectively.