1. What do you understand by ‘vulnerable section of the population’? Why some sections of the population become vulnerable to externalities? What is the best way to address them? Examine by taking suitable examples.
Note: The meaning of vulnerable is highly evasive. There does not any specific definition of this word or rather this term hasn’t been anywhere specifically defined in any statute precisely.
Your definition of ‘vulnerable section’ can be –
Vulnerable groups are those groups of people who may find it difficult to lead a comfortable life, and lack developmental opportunities due to their disadvantageous position.
Vulnerable groups are those groups whose resource endowment is inadequate to provide sufficient income from any available source. As per the World Bank a vulnerable section in a population is one that has some specific characteristics that make it at higher risk of falling into poverty than others.
In India there are multiple socio economic disadvantaged sections and vulnerable sections including women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, orphans & children, old aged/senior citizens, differently-abled people, poor migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS and sexual minorities.
Why some sections of the population become vulnerable to externalities –
Provide points such as lack developmental opportunities, basic minimum needs (includes health, shelter, employment, education, food etc), structural discrimination, due to disability, disaster, due to migration, Unexplained Vulnerability Associated with Race, Ethnicity, Sex, social stigma/discrimination, social alienation etc.
You can provide other factors too.
Best way to address them –
Demand-driven approaches, such as many social funds and other community driven development projects (CDD) as a strategy for delivering basic services down to the local level
Additional investment should be provided for developing, evaluating, and supporting effective education and health care delivery models designed to meet the specific needs of vulnerable populations.
Right to Education, Clean Drinking Water, Health, Livelihood etc.
Special attention to situations of disaster and humanitarian crisis
Raise awareness of the rights and needs of vulnerable persons in the development agenda and related efforts
Progressively remove barriers to and promote the realization of accessibility and equality as part of the general system of society.
Inclusive growth/development, sustainable development
You can give examples of some government programmes. Prevention is better than cure. So you can give some unique suggestion how to prevent some section falling into vulnerability.
2. Examine the recent laws passed for the protection of child rights. Are the existing provisions adequate in addressing the challenges faced by children in India? What steps must be taken to create a conducive environment for their overall growth and protection?
Laws for the protection of child rights:
1) Right to Education Act- which makes it mandatory for children up to 14 years of age to go to school free of cost in the government schools.
2) Art 21A of the constitution and The Child Labour Act- recent amendment has banned employment of children below 14 years in all the enterprises and prohibited working in hazardous industries below 18 years.
3) Maternity Benefit Act- which increases the leave period of pregnant women to 26 weeks which are crucial for the care n nutrition of the child.
4) POCSO- aims at eliminating sexual violence against children.
5) The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 (HAMA) and The Guardians and Wards Act, 1890 (GWA) which provides for the adoption of children by the Hindus and the other religions.
6) The prohibition of Child marriage act which prohibits the marriage of people below 18 years of age.
7) Juvenile justice act: which provides for the care and protection of children in conflict with the law.
Adequacy of the acts: not adequate because of the following reasons.
Child marriage: According to 2001 census there are 1.5 millions of girls in India under the age of 15 years already married. Some of the harmful consequences of such child marriage are that, child losses opportunities for education and segregation from family and friends, sexual exploitation, early pregnancy and health risks, child more vulnerable to domestic violence, higher infant mortality rate, low weight babies, pre-mature birth etc.
Nutrition: as per NFHS-3 data, 2015 child malnutrition figures were 40.4 per cent (underweight), 22.9 per cent (wasted) and 44.9 per cent (stunted).
Education: near universal enrollment at the primary school level but the annual average dropout rate of boys is 4.68% in 2013-14 and of girls 4.66%, which is too high in absolute terms.
Steps to be taken:
1) Improving the condition of government schools, building toilets for girls, encouraging girls’ parents to send them to school. Initiatives like BBBP, SSY are in right direction.
2) Strict actions against child labor, monitoring of industries is needed. Rescue, rehabilitation and education of these children must be done in mission mode.
3) Proper implementation of health schemes directed towards children as well as improving the qualities of government hospitals.
4) Most importantly creating mass awareness about the sexual offences against the children is imperative.
Best answer: Aman
Multiple laws have been introduced for the protection of child rights, like the recent Child Labour(Prohibition & Regulation)Amendment Act, The Juvinile Justice Act or the RTE Act but these provisions have been sighted as inadequate due to the following reasons
–The Child labour Act allows children under 14 to work in family enterprises which can be a source of exploitation & also interferes with the RTE Act and ILO & UNICEF’S Conventions
–Children under 18 are not allowed to work in hazardous occupation but the list has been pruned to mining,explosives & others under Factories Act, this can lead to children working in areas like chemicals,brick kiln etc
–The JJ Act allows children from 16-18 years to be tried as adults in various criminal cases which goes against the UN Rights of Child Convention
–These provision goes against the Constitutional rights under article 21A & 24 which are the fundamental rights of the children
Measures to be taken for their growth
–Proper implementation of the provisions in the RTE Act is one of the most important steps
–Complete ban on child labour according to the international conventions & standards with strict implementation
–Ensuring better health & nutritional status under ICDS & Mid Day Meal Schemes
–Arranging better counselling and care home facilities for adolscents instead of treating them as adults
It is the duty of the state as well as all the stakeholders to take part in the development of children welfare for ensuring as better tomorrow.
3. What is social security? By taking suitable examples, examine the significance of social security for the vulnerable section of the population. Also examine the social security schemes launched for the poor in India.
your Introduction should define what is social security in brief.
Also mention the constitutional obligation of government India to provide the social security.
You should give examples of social security for vulnerable section of the population.
Also mention the schemes related to various factions of society like Old age, disable, women, poor etc.
(Schemes have been mentioned in best answer section)
You should mention that Indian government has made various efforts including rights for larger section (especially poor) for improving the social condition at large but still there is a need of better implementation to reach its maximum potential.
Social security related reference material:
India, being a welfare State, has taken upon itself the responsibilities of extending various benefits of Social Security and Social Assistance to its citizens. The social security legislations in India derive their strength and spirit from the Directive Principles of the State Policy as contained in the Constitution of India.
Although the Constitution of India is yet to recognize Social Security as a fundamental right it does require that the State should strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting, as effectively as it may, a social order in which justice social, economic and political shall inform all the institutions of national life.
Social Security is increasingly seen as an integral part of the development process. It helps to create a more positive attitude not just to structural and technological change but also the challenge of globalisation and to its potential benefits in terms of greater efficiency and higher productivity.
Article 41 of the Constitution requires that the State should within the limits of its economic capacity make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement.
Article 42 requires that the State should make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
Article 47 requires that the State should raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and improvement of public health as among its primary duties.
The obligations cast on the State in the above Articles constitute Social Security
The well designed social security system for the workers in the unorganized sector will help in improving productivity, contribute to the harmonious labour relations and thus to socio and economic development. It will encourage and propagate the social peace by reducing the frequency of industrial conflicts, increase the willingness to work, make it easier to meet delivery commitments and lead to improved quality product, a better investment climate and thereby enhancing the competitiveness of the economy.
Effective enforcement of Social Security Acts through institutional mechanisms would impact on the level of trust and confidence of the working class. There is a felt need to look at the delivery mechanism in implementation of the Acts like EPF & MP Act, the ESI Act, Minimum Wages Act, Maternity Act, Workmen Compensation Act and the Payment of Gratuity Act.
The wage policy for the unorganised sector secured mainly through the Minimum Wages Act, 1948 is oriented towards providing a ‘Need-based Minimum Wages’. In the unorganised sector, the wages are fixed under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948. The fundamental objective of minimum wage fixation is to improve the standard of living of those sections of the working population in the sweated sector whose wages are very low and whose living and working conditions leave much scope for improvement. Under the Act both the State and the Central Governments are appropriate Governments for fixation/revision of minimum rates of wages in the scheduled employments falling in their respective jurisdiction.
MNREGA (providing minimum employment guarantee)
Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (medical insurance to poor and unorganized section),
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (for giving assured income to farmers for their crops despite any mishaps)
UJJWALA (gas cylinder connection for every below poverty household) and
Social Security is a tool used by the government of any country to transfer socio-economic benefits to the marginalised and vulnerable sections of the population in terms of pension, insurance, scholarships, subsidies etc.
They have a high significance especially in a country like India where diverse groups of vulnerable people coexist like women, poor, farmers, disabled, backward classes, etc.
1) Inclusive development – can only be achieved if socio-economic conditions of vulnerable sections improve.
2) Faster growth – contribution of every section is imperative for faster and higher growth. Various scholarships for ST/SC, aims at increasing their contribution towards growth.
3) Bridging Socio-economic inequality – because it’s a major hindrance towards holistic development.
4) Peaceful environment – if vulnerable sections are not taken care of it can lead to breakage of social fabric and create domestic problems.
Various schemes have been launched for the poor which include MNREGA( providing minimum employment guarantee), Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana( medical insurance to poor and unorganized section), Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana( for giving assured income to farmers for their crops despite any mishaps) , UJJWALA( gas cylinder connection for every below poverty household) and PMJDY( for financial inclusion).
However, few issues like delay in transfer of wages and lack of funding in MNREGA, zero and inoperative accounts in banks, ineffective implementation of schemes like RSBY, bureaucratic hurdles, corruption have been acting as hurdles towards complete success of these schemes. Countering these issues would lead towards the comprehensive development of each and every section of the population.
Best Answer3: -bhawana
Social security is a kind of assurance that a state provides to its people in the form of security which may be financial, social or cultural. It includes assurity of necessitated food, adequate income generation, general public health and assistance in case of disability.
Welfare functions of a state have increased in leaps and bounds in last some decades. Now they are concerned about each stage of a citizen’s life so as-
To form an equitable and vibrant society which can embark upon innovative and advanced technological developments for all its people like by FI which banks the unbanked and connects them to financial institutions.
2. To ensure dignity and integrity of the human being mandated under article 21 like by banning untouchability, institutionalizing dalit capitalism and discarding notions of pollution and purity.
India started with revolutions for food security like green revolution, NFSA, MSP, PDS but passed through income assurance schemes like MNERGA, EFPO and reached to class specific social security like BBBP, MDM, ICDS and PMKSY. India has tried to insure its citizens in their adversities in the form of Atal pension yojna, jeevan jyoti yojna, PMFBY and now the life insurance on the lowest ever premium (less than one rupee)by railway dept are some of the many social.security schemes of India.
Performance of them has always been a mixed bag due to their lackadaisical implementation, lack of information and bureaucratic hindrances. Still we have reduced poverty level from 32% to 22% by MNERGA, facilitated income for old age of lakhs of workers by EFPO, gave ahead to the OROP scheme, raised the literacy up to 73% and eliminated life taking disease like polio and small pox. Many states have worked on their levels like ban on liquor, tobacco, manual scavanging and social boycotts.
India being a member of global forums like UNICEF and UNESCO and signatory to many agreements like SDGs and marrkesh treaty (for visually impaired) has always strived for social security at the global level.
4. What implications will the ratifying of Paris deal have on the Indian economy? Analyze.
Your introduction should mention the Paris deal in brief. Also mention the INDC submitted by India in brief.
Mention the implications (both positive and negative) of ratifying the Paris deal on Indian economy.
Mind map with different dimension has given below: –
Your conclusion should mention that though implementation of Paris deal need huge investment and it may have negative implications in short term but by cooperation of developed countries and technological innovation we can overcome these issues and at the end it will only going to help us in long term.
Best Answer1: -aman
India has recently ratified the Paris deal which commits us to work against the challenges of climate change under the UNFCC, the targets set under the deal are going to have wide ranging implication for the economy
–The focus on renewable energy with a target of 175 GW for 2022 and ensuring 40% energy from non-fossil resources under INDC is going to attract huge investment
–Large employment opportunities could be generated due to this sector
–Lowering of dependence on coal & oil will lower our trade and fiscal deficits
–It will eventually lead to demand of services and its export in this sector to other countries as India gains experience
–Better environmental conditions will improve health condition thus lowering or expenditure on health
–It slows down the pace of our development when we have huge population without electricity and other basic facilities
–The targets under the deal requires huge investments from the government which will affect other developmental activities
–Steps to mitigate like emission reduction highlighted by recent shift from BS-IV to BS-VI is going to effect the automobile sector and cost of vehicles is going to rise
–Cost of renewable energy is high compared to energy produced by conventional energy resources
Although the deal might have some negative affect on the economy but the positive impact and spillovers cannot be neglected and it is important for India to adhere to targets set under the deal and work for sustainable environment
Paris deal has signaled an end to the fossil fuel era. In this context India has made a climate change offer in the form of its “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution” which has far reaching implications on our economy
IMPLICATIONS OF PARIS CLIMATE DEAL ON VARIOUS SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY
i) Primary sector: Better practices in primary sector such as agriculture, fisheries and forestry
ii) Secondary sector: Green energy generators to benefit as concessional funds may help build transmission infrastructure
iii) Public sector: Public sector infrastructure in innovative fields such as green energy
iv) External sector: Foreign Direct Investment in renewable energy field can add to GDP growth
i) Manufacturing sector
– Indian Steel and Power sectors, may have to revisit growth plans as pressure mounts on India to cut use of thermal coal
– Stringent emission norms will add to cost in automobile industries
ii) Private sector: Private sector industries cannot afford the heavy costs involved
COST IMPLICATIONS OF PARIS CLIMATE DEAL
i) Environmental cost: Environmental costs which affect the environment gets reduced
ii) Social cost: Costs borne by the society (such as pollution, river water contamination etc) for the sake of development gets reduced
iii) Tax Revenue: Carbon tax is a step towards helping India meet their voluntary target to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide
iv) Human capital: Employment opportunities in innovative fields will help in efficient utilisation of human capital
i) Monetary cost: Manufacturers may see cost pressure if concessional funds are not available to implement energy efficient solutions
ii) Technological cost: Oil and gas companies may have to invest heavily on low emission technology
Despite negative implications, Paris deal can help India to strike the right balance between economy and environment
5. What are your views on the ongoing debate whether Pakistani artists should be sent back to their country?
Since this is not a question but a debate, it can have two angles. Either you can support the action of banning the Pakistani artists working in India or can go against it, but you should be able to rationally support your view.
It’s better to tell both pros and cons of this action and conclude the answer accordingly.
As it is meant for interview debate, we as an institute would not take a particular stand over it.
Following are some good answers for this question.
Best Answer 1: Simplex
Art and culture has no boundaries, so is the case with artist. An artist represent the love and peace that art has. It is through his creation, act or work he/she shows the path towards peaceful Co-existence. However, the recent decision of sending back the Pakistani artist and the decision of Indian Producers association to ban the artist is justified because:
1) At time of strike or war, the nation must stand united and back the armed forces to give a moral and psychological support.
2) At international level, when the diplomats and senior officials are trying to corner down pakistan for their terrorist activities, then the internal policies must be coherent with such line of action.
3) Such an action is also in coherence with India’s soft power diplomacy, as it would create an internal pressure on Pakistan to stop supporting terrorism and militancy.
4) In an era of economic and military blockade, India’s action of cultural blockade is an innovative, milder than economic, yet powerful measure to corner down pakistan for its militant activity.
5) India has been a peace loving country and has always given a chance to improve. However, at time stand is required to be taken, so that patience is not misunderstood as cowardice.
The recent tweet by former Pakistani, now Indian, artist Adnan sami condemning militant activity is also laudable. When questioned by the Pakistani media about such tweet, he himself confessed that even a true Pakistani would also condemn such terrorism. It is in this line, it must be understood that the attack is not on pakistan, but on terrorism. Even the people of pakistan are suffering from Terrorism badly, but the political Hypocrisy of pakistan that supports terrorism continues to take life within and outside the border. Thus, the act of banning pakistani artist is justify to create internal cultural pressure on government.
Best Answer 2: The Dark Knight
The issue of Pakistani artists working in India has been debated since long time. There has been demand of not allowing Pakistani artists to work in India and be sent back, even during the relative calm phase in India Pakistan relation, like some Indian singers and Politicians opposing programme of Gulam Ali at Banaras. This issue is being debated more hotly in recent times after the dip in India Pakistan relations. This issue can be analysed as
Allowing Pakistani artists to perform in India can maintain link with the prominent people of Pakistan, thereby maintaining channel for Track II diplomacy. Such links come handy during extreme hostility.
It also showcases India’s maturity as a credible and responsible super power on the world stage, which deals with immediate problems while keeping its eyes on the distant horizon.
But it may put the national government in a tight spot in the eyes of common Indians. Such situation may be exploited by anti-social elements to flare up communal tensions in India, thereby further creating law and order problems also.
Providing high level of security to Pakistani artists may not be possible at all times , exposing them to several vulnerabilities. This can further create trouble in India Pakistan Bilateral relations as well as will showcase India in poor light on world stage.
Hence it can be summed that government should provide required security to Pakistani artists and strict message to people against taking law in their hands be given. At the same time it should advise the Pakistani artists to speak to their audiences in India and create a rapport with them with their words and work.
Best Answer 3: Meiji
The recent spike in the terrorist attacks on the security establishments causing large number of causalities and infrastructural damage has been a major problem the country has been facing. The recent Uri attack in September 2016 claimed 18 of our army men wounding many others.
India as a country and its civil society definitely condemns the usage of non-state actors by enemy states like Pakistan to achieve strategic goals and the radicalization of youth in the name of terrorism. But there are some lean voices, raising the issue of sending back Pakistani artists as a step to condemn the attacks. What the society should accept is the fact that Pakistan’s democracy isn’t developed vis-à-vis Indian democracy and the civilian govt. isn’t in control of the security establishments. It is world known fact that – “Every state has an Army, while Pakistani Army has a state”.
The civil society of Pakistan wants peaceful relations with India, their taste for Indian movies, food, culture, etc. represents their acceptance of Indian society. Sending the artists, who have obtained a valid, legal visa to take part in the Indian movie industry or otherwise doesn’t send right signals. Artists who represent the soft-power of a country are no way related to politics and also play a positive role in bringing the people of the country together.
So sending back the artists, wouldn’t serve any purpose and also may be counter-productive showing the narrow mindedness of the Indian society. We also should remember, India has a strong diaspora presence worldwide numbering ~30M people, if political differences affects the common man, India should also be ready to face such situations during adverse times.
The ethics of the question ” should pakistan artists be send back to their country” be decided taking into account consequneces of decisions, present circumstances, rights and duties ,and international ethics.
Decision is wrong because :
1. National interest should not be put above the humanity i.e love for all regardless of nationality.
2. Consequences will be bad. Hostility will increase. Peace will be vicitim. No progress will be possible.
3. Injustice : Since, artists are not responsible for terror why they should be punished.
4. Violation of the fundamental right of people right to live with dignity. And such sending back is indignified.
5. Lack of compassion and empathy towards artists ,who promote arts and build relations.
Decision may be considered ethical because :-
It was duty of the artists to condemn such attack, which they did not.
2. Consequences will be good. Pakisitan will be forced to change its ways.
3. Can be said as an step towards justice to those who were killed in Uri attack.
While above analysis suggests there are equally valid arguements on both side. however, one has to be emotionally intelligent to understand the present situation. The call for sending back artists is because of sudden emotional outpour of love for country and hatred for all pakistanis. Which is not tenable. The pakistani artists emtions of fear of the fundamentalists in their home country, who can pose threat to artist families has to be understood.
So overall, the situation demands more emotional intelligence and not just outpouring of emotions.