1. What is the threat perception of Naxalism in India? Why Naxalism has succeeded to widen its reach?
Let intro be just the origin of Naxalism and what naxalism is. Naxalism is a movement started in late 60’s in Naxalbari village of West Bengal to revolt against the local land lords and zamindaris and establish egalitarian society.
Body: – Both parts should be given equal concentration.
1st part should be about threat perception:-
-First mention the regions affected by Naxalism in a line or two and then start kind of threats.
-Mention the kind of threats for human lives especially political leaders and defense forces and threats to economy of region and country as a whole.
2nd part is about reason for their success in widening base:-
-Categories the reasons on various issues like political failures, economical failure, social failure, geographical etc.
-Political failures can be implementation of land reforms, weak law and order implementation etc.
-Economical can be employment opportunity, development in regions, basic necessity provisions etc.
-Social can be discrimination by society based on caste and creed, forceful eviction from their lands for development work without proper resettlement etc.
-Geographical can be inaccessible and dense forest providing breeding grounds for growth of movement and training facility
End with saying how government is coming up with various schemes for them like surrendering without any punishment for past crimes, job opportunity in forces and police as informers and rewards. Fast paced development work taken up and more air support for forces to bring them under control among others.
Naxalism has emerged as greatest threat to India’s internal security. The movement is particularly concentrated in dense forest region known as Red Corridor encompassing around 106 districts of MP, Bihar, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
The threat perception from naxalism is given below:-
1.) Political threat: – This causes law and order problem in affected region. Moreover, distorts regional tranquility with assertion to Regionalism.
2.) Economic Threat: – Most of the natural resources such as coal, iron, etc. are located here.
3.) Social threat: – This has caused humanitarian crises which may lead to revolt by tribals and locals, further fueling regional, communal tendencies.
Naxalism have succeeded in widening their reach on following grounds:-
1.) Social: – The failure of state to sort issues such as Land, forest rights, caste discrimination, gender inequalities etc.
2) Political: – Failure to maintain law and order and PESA act implementation.
3.) Economic: – Failure of state to provide employment, food security etc.
4.) Local issues: Naxals garner support by solving local issues with Jan adalat, people government etc.
5.) Geography: – Indian forces are unable to reach naxal bases located in isolated and difficult terrain. Moreover bases are mined.
Basically Naxalism perpetuate on serious issue of government failure to address needs of the poor. So a mixed strategy of force and development is required to tackle this menace.
Naxalism derives its name from village ‘Naxalbari’ in West Bengal where the Naxalite movement originated. Movement was to seek justice for poor farmers, landless and disadvantaged tribals etc with the way of armed rebellion. Since its start the movement gradually moved to other states- Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, AP etc
Naxalite movement is a threat to internal security of India in many ways-
• Breeding Separatist tendencies- class-based-
• Armed struggle- killing of innocents- young recruits, security forces, villagers and tribals in affected areas
• Further marginalization- violent activities stymies the development of rural areas
• Affects the economy and growth of regions
• Illegal activities- drug business, illegal arms trade
Naxalism succeeded to widen its reach as-
• Targeted poor and suffering classes- desperation for salvation
• Delayed agricultural and land reforms-
• Slow pace of development- lack of equal opportunities of growth
• Politics- hollow promises further turned away the population from affected areas
However, due to changing govt attitude- bringing land reforms, giving right to tribals (Forest Rights Act), economic push- Stand-Up India the process of assimilation into mainstream population of such marginalised tracts has started. Govt needs to keep the pace for uprooting the issue from the very core.
2. Is communalism a threat to internal security? Examine.
Your introduction should mention what is communalism in brief.
Communalism is ‘the loyalty to a sociopolitical grouping based on religious or ethnic affiliation rather than to society as a whole’.
It is an ideology which takes three forms or stages, one following the other.
The first stage starts with a belief that those who follow the same religion have common secular interests, that is, common political, economic, social and cultural interests.
The second stage is characterized by the notion that in a multi-religious society like India, the secular interests of followers of one religion are dissimilar and divergent from that of the followers of another religion.
In the third stage it is believed that the interests of the followers of different religions are mutually incompatible, antagonistic and hostile.
Mention the points which shows how communalism can be a threat to internal security.
(You can write them under various sub headings like)
Fuels separatist tendencies.
Although India’s national integrity remains fundamentally secure, pressures from fissiparous cleavages in growing challenges of communalism and religious fanaticism have acquired disturbing dimensions. Political manipulation of religious sentiments for narrow political ends has long-term implications for the future of India’s secular federal framework. The incipient threats to Indian federal polity in many parts of the country are putting growing strains on the political structure. Although India has been so far able to manage these challenges with a certain skill and patience, there is growing anxiety about the pressures getting intensified at a time when there is a steady erosion in the state’s role in resolving conflict and bringing about social transformation. This is accompanied by a decline in the mediating role of the governing elite and party system. Decline in the state’s order and authority has led to greater violence outside the established political channels, compounding the general law and order situation.
It will impact the economic growth and progress.
Mass violence/ riots results in loss of infrastructure and properties.
Impact on social fabric of the country
Youth might get radicalized.
Your conclusion should say that communalism is one of the major threat for internal security. It need to be tackled by consensus building amongst political parties, robust laws, use of doctrine of state neutrality amongst religions, diverting idle youth in productive purpose.
Communalism is the most serious threat that India faces today in this rapidly radicalizing world. The communalism can create gulf within Indian society and break the unity amongst people. This can unleash violence in extreme form which is particularly evident from Anti sikh riots, Muzaffarnagar riots etc. Communalism is threat to internal security on following grounds :-
1.) Political: – This fuels the separatist tendencies in the state and start asserting regional identity. Further undermining the notion of oneness or “Indian”. Eg Khalistan demand.
2.)Economic: – This can adversely affect economic development of the country. Moreover may hamper financial institutions , if any radicalized youth or group causes cyber attack.
3.)Social: – It would lead to disharmony amongst religious group which may accentuate into violence. Moreover youth get radicalized and indulge in terrorist activites like bomb blast, shooting etc.
4.)Geographical: – Communalism may causes neighboring countries especially Pakistan and other non state actors such as ISIS, JeM etc to support and fuel religious sentiments causing further divide in the society. Kashmir is presently witnessing this issue.
Communalism is very grave problem in India. It need to be tackled by consensus building amongst political parties, robust laws, use of doctrine of state neutrality amongst religions, diverting idle youth in productive purpose.
3. There is an urgent need of revamping the intelligence establishment in India. Discuss. Also examine the associated key priority areas and challenges.
Most terror attacks in India are characterised by three critical missteps: ignored intelligence inputs, inconsistent security response, and heavy casualties.
If we consider, for instance, the Uri, Pathankot and the 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks, there were specific alerts Indian agencies had about a possible attack but they failed.
Our country is grappled with all 4 kind of threats — internal, external, externally-aided internal and internally-aided external. India’s history is full of such experiences. Since Independence, we have faced many such situations, initiated by China, Pakistan and others in the Northeast and even in the western sectors of the country since the mid-60s.
21st century challenges such as cyber warfare, cyber terrorism, internal security problems, due to insurgency movements, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, cussed political polarization – all these calls for urgent need of revamping the intelligence establishment.
Different cadres, departments and ministries: The broad structure of our intelligence consists of the Research and Analysis Wing mandated to look after external intelligence, while the Intelligence Bureau looks after internal intelligence. The former operates under the ministry of external affairs while the later is under the home ministry. The defence ministry has the Defence Intelligence Agency, and the intelligence agencies of the three services. Of the three services, only the army has a dedicated cadre of intelligence officers and personnel below officers’ rank. There are other intelligence establishments like the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, the Coast Guard etc that come under various departments/states.
The next big issue is intelligence sharing: Multiple agencies with overlapping charters are necessity in the intelligence activity. However, inter-agency sharing of both raw inputs and analysis is essential. The common norm in any agency is to pass an information up their channels first, before it is shared with another relevant user. In short, horizontal sharing of intelligence at various parallel levels, is often not too efficient. There is a need to have a more empowered apex body to ensure smooth lateral information traffic.
India intelligence community requires a national intelligence grid with its databases, collated information and analysed intelligence evaluations, classified as per their security implications that can be accessed by officers of various agencies as per rights of access accorded to officers of various ranks.
Technology is an important issue in intelligence upgrades: India requires adequate satellites to ensure its surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities to provide the necessary inputs to its armed forces. With the threats gaining momentum, technological upgrades cannot be delayed any further. In fact, if we have to count as a regional power, we need the capability to provide intelligence to our neighborhood states also.
Accountability and Transparency: Accountability is another important aspect given the short shrift by quoting secrecy. Such an approach leads to loss of efficiency. Agencies like the R&AW have to answer to none. Simultaneous with accountability is transparency. A greater degree of transparency, without sacrificing national security needs also to be defined.
Lack of oversight and clear legal charter: There are no defined functions of intelligence agencies. The cover of secrecy is often serving as a carpet of immunity from penal action, accountability, professional acts of omission and commission and misuse of resources for tracking the political opponents of ruling parties, at the expense of the taxpayers’ money.
(You can provide examples of CCTNS and NATGRID, need for National Security Doctrine on lines of US etc.)
4. Privileging “greater injustices” faced by the Muslim community in India over gender justice within Islam is counterproductive and further marginalises Muslim women.
According to Sachar committee report, the condition of Muslim community is worst than SC and ST. They socially, economically and educationally backward. When the situation is so grim, you cannot take one segment of this society (women) and try to uplift it. It’s like if you want to nurture a branch, you need to take care of the tree.
Most of the problems of Muslim women is not because of the Shariya law, but because of its wrong interpretation. For example,
Economic participation of women: Iran also follows Shariya law, but more than 50% member of parliament there are women. Several educated sects of Muslims in India like Shia, Bohra etc have high women participation in economic activities and decision making.
Polygamy: More than one wife in Islam is conditional, and not a compulsion. Also saying that polygamy is there only in Muslims is factually incorrect and far from ground reality. Although Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 has made polygamy illegal, by percentage there are more cases of polygamy in non-Muslims than Muslims.
Patriarchy: Apart from certain tribal communities, Indian society is by and large patriarchal. Inheritance of paternal property by women has been there in Islam, right from the beginning. Moreover, despite the fact that right to inheritance is given by Hindu Marriage Act, women in India do not inherit the property and it is seen as a social stigma.i.e. it is not something specific to Muslim women, it a general problem.
Triple Talaq: Even though the issue is there in the news now, the discussions have been there for quite some time. Again there are many Muslim sects in India, which do not follow the system of Triple Talaq. It is indeed an exploitative practice and should be amended taking all stake holders in confidence.
There are some other problems associated with the ‘Muslim community’ like high fertility rate, purdah system etc.
If these problems are not seen with a narrow view of religion, we will find out that they are largely social problems and can be solved if education is promoted. There are some larger issues that has to be tackled like problem of unemployment, low representation in legislature, low percentage in government job, discrimination and prejudices etc. Putting religion in picture will increase the insecurities of the minority community and will alienate it more. Also it will be perceived as an encroachment on their religious beliefs.
It is important now that government should work on these problems right from the grass root level, taking the community in confidence. Then only the overall social condition as well as the condition of women will improve.
(A long article is written to improve your understanding about the issue. You can use these points in your answer.)
Best Answer: Abhishekrwt
Muslims constitute the second largest community in India. The Sachar Committee report laid bare the socio-economic condition of the Muslims in India. It highlighted among other things, the lower literacy levels, life expectancy, social discrimination and economic marginilization faced by the community.
Amidst calls for focus on upliftment of Muslim community, it has been argued that priviledging the entire community over gender injustice withing Islam is counterproductive and further marginalizes Muslim women. The traditional allegations of minority appeasement, along with recent debates over the triple talaq and UCC have only added more fuel to the fire.
However, the above view point is at best a misinterpretation, or at worst, an attempt at stigmatizing an entire faith as:
1)It implicitly assumes Islam to be a patriarchial Religion, that discriminates against women. Verses from the Quran, along with contemporary examples of muslim women leaders only illustrate this to be false.
2) To assume as above would be to create a false dichotomy, as efforts of Muslim women empowerment have to be undertaken in conjunction with, rather than substituting for muslim upliftment.
3) Many faiths in their contemporary avatars can be argued to be patriarchial(The hindu marriage act). So an exclusive Muslim argument does not hold water.
4)While the argument against Triple talaq is unambiguous, confusing the same with UCC may lead to social disharmony. The two need to be debated separately.
5)The Sachar committee highlighted that the conditions faced by Muslims were worse than SC’s and ST”s. Any women empowerment within Islam cannot afford to ignore the condition of the entire community.
Gender Justice is a vital social reform that has to be religious neutral in its application. The fight for equality for Muslim women, along with the rights of the Muslim Community needs to continue. However, any attempt to drive a wedge between the two may well be harmful in the current political climate.
5. A lack of jobs and an abundant workforce have meant that the agrarian states of India have become tinderboxes waiting to catch fire. Comment.
Your introduction should mention the rising no. of agrarian riots. Also mention the growing stress on Agricultural sector as the share in GDP getting reduced, the dependency of the workforce remains the same.
Statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)’s annual report, “Crime in India”, reveal that in 2015, the number of ‘agrarian riots’has increased by a whopping 327%
The bulk of these riots were recorded in three states: Bihar with the highest incidence of 1,156 (43%), Uttar Pradesh with 752 (28%) and Jharkhand with 303 (11%).
Mention what all count under the category of agrarian riots
Though there is no classification yet but there is a definite need to disaggregate the category of agrarian riots, manifestly there are three or four conflicts that are being called agrarian riots. The first are movements against land acquisition; the second are the recent upsurge in caste-based rioting and demands for reservation, for example, the Patidars, Meenas, Jats, Gujars and now the Marathas; third would be those protesting for jobs, food and other amenities and fourth would be incidences of left wing extremism (LWE).
Mention the reasons behind the riots.
We have to see what these riots reflect; they represent a profound political crisis that is not only limited by the economic agendas. There is a consensus that the spurt in these forms of cases suggests a clearer manifestation of the deep-rooted agrarian crisis that has hit the rural economy of the country: lack of agricultural productivity, the unavailability of jobs and the growing push to bring development through land acquisition
In the past two years, the onset of a drought, which further regressed an already stagnant agricultural sector and skyrocketing food prices only increased the distress faced by farmers and crippled the rural economy
There are barely any good jobs in the private sector or the public sector for those in rural India. Those who have gained even tertiary education will want to work in the fields
This lack of jobs has manifested itself in the growing push for anti-reservation marches of communities such as the Patidars in Gujarat and now the Marathas in Maharashtra. This has given rise to a floating population of youth who have no jobs and no security and are reduced to ‘bad quality’ employment in the private sector doing jobs such as security guards or even delivery boys for e-commerce retail companies.
In 2015, there were nearly seven agrarian riots a day all over the country. There are more unemployed youths than ever before, with more ‘skilled or semi-skilled’ workers entering the market every day
Your conclusion should mention that a 70 % of India’s population still lives in rural India and more than 50 % still dependent on agricultural sector. The current situation will not only impact the economic position but will also disturb the social fabric. The need of the hour is to reform the land acquisition, providing basic infrastructure and skills for the development of Rural India.
Best Answer1: -Spectre
Statistics report released by National crime record’s bureau annual report, “crime in india” reveal that in 2015, the number of agrarian riots have increased by a whopping 327 percent with Bihar, UP,Jharkhand being most effected.
The recent caste based rioting and demands for reservation, for example, the Patidars, Meenas, Jats, Gujars and now the Marathas are also in the same line.
>Lack of employment- lack of jobs has manifested itself in the growing push for anti-reservation marches of communities such as the Patidars in Gujarat
>Land acquisition rehabilitation and resettlement act-When the Act was promulgated and eventually passed through an ordinance, there was an increase in unrest in the countryside, it was a matter of livelihood. though the bill got lapsed currently.
> floating population of youth who have no jobs and no security and are reduced to bad quality employment in the private sector. This leaves large sections of the population free to engage in crime, rioting and other untoward activities.
Therefore there is an urgent need to address the aggravating situation
>more focus on employment generation through skill india mission, pmkvy,
>focus on food processing sector for employment generation with it being named as sunrise industry
>boost to manfacturing sector through make in india for creation of more jobs
with india becoming the youngest nation by 2020,it is crucial to generate employment opportunities to the youth which helps in reaping the benefits of the demographic dividend.
Jobless growth is an uncomfortable reality today. With reservation beginning to reap its social benefits, patriarchal leadership, often occupied by those belonging to higher castes is under threat. Further, inability to find jobs among the youth(specially of the forward castes) has led to flare ups in several states(Jats in Haryana, Patels in Guj, Marathas in Maharashtra, Gujjars in Raj). This is because:
1)Rigid caste system ensured disproportionate land holdings among the high caste people. But growth of family, and division of land has reduced land holding sizes, making agriculture unsustainable for many.
2)Increasing mechanization among prosperous farmers has reduced manpower demand and also exposed disguised unemployment, leading to search for alternative employment despite absence of any skill.
3) Agrarian households pay relatively lesser attention to education. Local caste dominance is of little help in the real world where fierce competition exists for scarce jobs. People are often unable to compete.
4)Reservation has changed the socio-eco demographic. With Dalits beginning to speak against historic oppression and assert their rights, it has led to a upper caste backlash.
5)Such unemployment also hurts the marital prospects of the youth(Brides allegedly bought in Haryana), over and above an already skewed sex ratio. This compounds frustration.
The recent instances of public disorder, arson, destruction of public property in states such as Haryana are a manifestation of the above discussed worries and anger. Resovling the same requires a tighter control over public order by the state admin,along with greater avenues for employment through skill development and entrepreneurship, among others.
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