1. Identify the types of linkages between terrorism and organized crime. Cite examples in the Indian context. Which factors have contributed to these linkages? Discuss.
Intro can be definition of what is organized crime and terrorism. Or also both can be linked to give one common definition like how both work by exploiting people by fear and causing harm and even deaths and also how terrorism is linked to religion or caste unlike OC.
Body: – Both parts should be given equal concentration.
1st part should be about linkages between terrorism and organized crime:-
-Talk about the links between both in terms of finance, arms supply, man power supply, safe passage and security, other goods like drugs, smuggling etc.
-Explain each part by giving examples like Financing can be D-company, drugs can be golden triangle and golden crescent , man power can be illegal trafficking from Bangladesh and rural part of India, security can be Pakistan giving security for Dawood by taking protection money and using it for funding terror in India.
2nd part is factors contributing to these linkages:-
-You can categorize the factors into political, economic, social, technological, legal etc.
-In each factor provide explanation for a line or two like in
-political mention about involvement of criminal elements to fight and win elections.
-economic can be poverty, money power.
– Social can be discrimination, marginalization, illiteracy, and radicalization.
-Legal can be delay in justice and weak laws.
End with mentioning about recent resolution passed in G20 summit and how terrorism has become a global talking point. Also institutes like FATF, UN peace keeping have helped in reducing the same.
Organized crime means crime or illegal acts such as drug trafficking, kidnapping, extortion, contract killing and so on done for monetary purpose. On the other hand terrorism is an act of using violence to threaten common public and government for political or ideological purpose. It is clear that both have different objectives, however a linkage prevails between both which can be substantiated below:-
1.) Money laundering: – Terrorist use money laundered by criminal organization to conduct blast. Example Mumbai blast (1993).
2.) Extortion: – Insurgents and Naxalite groups indulge in extortion to fund terrorist activities.
3.) Drug and arm trafficking: – Criminal organizations use drug proceed to purchase arms for terrorist groups. Example North east India.
4.) Counterfeit currency: – Terrorist organization supply fake currency to criminal organization in India via Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan etc to destabilize economy.
The linkage have increased because of following reasons:-
1.) Political: – failure of state machinery, criminal political nexus etc.
2.) Social: – increasing demand for drugs amongst youth, radicalization of youth, illiteracy, child use etc.
3.) Economic: – Use of advanced technology, professionals etc to divert money in financial institutions.
4.) Policing: – police have been unable to expose high end syndicates due to weak intelligence and low coordination.
The linkage have become more pronounced in recent time due to development failure, non-state actor support etc. So a robust and Zero tolerance policy is required to deal with problem.
2. India has been tagged as growing market of illegal drugs through various illicit channels”. What are the reasons for growing drug abuse in India? Also mention the challenges and steps taken to curb this menace
Your introduction should talk about the rising threat of drug abuse in India. To underline the fact, you should give some figures and facts too. You can also link it with the recent controversy related to “Udta Punjab” movie.
What is Drug Abuse and Addiction?
Drug abuse refers to the habit of regular intake of illegal drugs characterized by mis-use of drugs. There is a thin-line of difference between Drug abuse and addiction. In case of drug abuse, the person may or may not be addicted to these harmful drugs. However, in case of drug addiction, the person is severely addicted to these drugs. Thus, drug abuse may often lead to drug addiction.
Few Facts: – Sociological impact of drug Abuse.( World drug report,2016)
4,000 Indian women who were partners of males who injected drugs were studied by the report.
Diagnosable mental health problems, poor decision-making powers and economic dependence characterised these women.
43% of women suffered physical violence by their drug-injecting partner, and 53% faced verbal aggression.
These women who are highly jeopardised by domestic violence have a low rate of seeking legal help.
Reasons for growing drug abuse in India
Presence of Golden crescent and triangle in neighborhood: The World Drug Report, affirmed that India is a transit point for heroine due to its low market value. India is included in the list of transit countries after Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines with regards to cocaine.
The Jammu and Kashmir High Court has said that due to India’s close proximity to the major opium-growing regions, the country is facing the menace of drug trafficking and drug abuse among the youth is increasing
Sheer pressure of studies on students might be one of the few cases which results in substance abuse among the youngsters. The educational system nowadays is very competitive and lacks flexibility with lakhs of students appearing for few thousand seats. Again there is always a parental burden which adds to the pressure of making it big academically.
Personal and family problems also leads to drug abuse among youngsters who fail to cope up with the ever-growing family and personal problems. Workplace pressure and issues with the colleagues results in workplace deviance which later results in detrimental effects on the individual.
Stress in relationship: –changed socio- cultural status.
Siphoning of drugs in the market even by the officials (as per the Drug map, SC)
Porous border and trafficking, illegal migrants.
Large amount of black money in the market also helps in flourishing illegal businesses.
Impact of Drug Abuse on India: –
The involvement of various terrorist groups and syndicates in drug trafficking leads to threats to the national security and sovereignty of states by the way of narco-terrorism
The drug problem is a serious threat to the public health, safety and well-being of humanity. Besides, it is considered to be the originator of petty offences as well as heinous crimes like smuggling of arms and ammunition and money laundering
According to UNODC, India does not have data on drug users.
The ‘dark net’ trend, although illegal, had raised concerns of attracting new population of drug users as it avoids direct contact with criminals and law enforcing authorities.
Changing social status – shift towards nuclear family.
Cut throat competition led to stress. Unemployment rate is also high
No proper implementation of laws.
Lack of resources: deaddiction centres etc.
Social stigma: -people don’t go to deaddiction centres.
Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act, 1988: -the “aim and objective” of the enactment of the Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act, 1988, was to “provide detention in certain cases” to prevent illicit traffic in narcotics drugs and psychotropic substances and for matters concerned therewith.
Drug map was prepared on the order of SC to identify the areas from where even confiscated drugs were smuggled.
Increased security on border areas and fencing
Your conclusion should say that the impact of drug abuse is huge on the youth and it will also impact the national security. So the government should work in tandem with the civil society to tame the menace of drug network in India and to save the future of young India.
India is caught in the vicious cycle of drug abuse and the numbers of drug addicts are increasing day by day. According to a UN report, One million heroin addicts are registered in India, and unofficially there are as many as five million.
Reasons for growing drug abuse:
>proximity to the golden crescent and golden triangle
>the fast changing social milieu and disintegration of the old joint family system, absence of parental love and care in modern families
>porous borders and drug traffickers finding even other alternatives for more perpetration such as usage of cryptic ‘darknet’ and the clandestine and unregulated currency Bitcoin
> Prescription drug abuse in increasing in India as per UN reports
>peer influence, lack of awareness, unemployment etc are other reasons
Challenges: >drug abuse is intrinsically linked with racketeering, conspiracy, corruption, illegal money transfers, terrorism and violence threatening the very stability of governments.
>there is no proper pooling of any intelligence data from neighbouring countries to regulate the drug trafficking market
>jobless growth and prevalence of unemployment
>corruption in various concerned agencies has been one of the most difficult hurdle in the prevention of drug trafficking. Drug trafficking generates enormous profits and the lure of money has always been too difficult to resist
Steps to curb
>Family members of minors needs to be sensitize
> Proper counseling of those involved in drug trafficking
> Special teams to check the growth of Drug trafficking from NE and Nepal region etc
>Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Amendment) Bill to make deal effectively with drug abuse
>Growth and development of underdeveloped regions like NE and skill development programs for vulnerable and children who are involved in this business for livelihood
Best Answer2: – Vidhu
Illict drug trade in India is slowly becoming a big menace for India. The use of recreational drugs has affected millions of lives and is a threat to the demographic dividend as well as the security of the country.
The reasons for India’s growing drug abuse are:
The geographical location of India makes it one of the most vulnerable market for illict drug trade. India lies between the 2 drug producing region-The Golden Cresecent(Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan) and the Golden Triangle(Thailand, Laos, Malaysia). This along with porus borders brings huge amount of drugs in India.
2. Rise in tendency to ape western culture among youth who wrongly assume drug usage as
a status symbol for modernization
Rise in stress and tensions due to low employment opportunities, high debt (education, house)
low mental care and counselling facilities to guide the people who use drugs
Highly vulnerable states like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra benefited from agricultural boom but subsequent stagnation led to crisis hence the tendency towards drugs
low regulation mechanism and easy availibility of drugs increased drug abuse
The challenges to curb this menace are:
porus borders and allegations of security forces facilitating drug trade hinders regualtions
low number of rehabilitaton centres prevent early remedy
drug abuse used as a tool by antinational elemensts to hollow our youth population
jobless growth and poor performance in job creation is a hindrance
unregulated opium given to laborers to increase performance in farmlands
The steps taken to curb the menace are:
Narcotics Drugs and Pyshotropic Act deals with drug abuse
Strict security and Control on the borders
Awareness generation though media, government programmes to dissimate ill effects of drug usage
Rehabilitation and care centres for patients
The gloomy picture of drug usage can be rectified only if governments at all level understand the situation and cooperate to take steps to curb it. With strict regualation and awareness generation the menace can be reduced and the youth could be saved from it.
3. What are the implications of a rising Islamic State (IS) for India? What policy prescription would you give to thwart any future crisis in the wake of an expanding IS? Discuss.
IS(Islamic State) or ISIS(Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) or ISIL(Islamic State of Iraqi Leviant) or Daensh(Its Arabian Name) is an extreme religious fundamentalist terrorist organization which believes in the establishment of a caliphate over the Muslim as well global world.
It believes in inculcating fear in the minds of global citizens and accept their authority and believes as the one true belief.
The IS has used the modern technology for its aid, using its High production quality propaganda videos, social media followers and forums to spread its evil cause. Misguided youths over the world get attracted towards such wrongful indoctrination through social media and join in their so-called “Jihad” against the invading west. They use misguided historical context as a weapon and give unethical hopes to youths which has seen a rise in their followings in recent times. Also their pan-world attacks like in Paris, Sydney, USA has given them a popularity and the progeny of Al-Qaeda after the death of Osama. In some experts word, IS is more devilish than Al-Qaeda as Al-Qaeda was based on an organizational structure and morals of their leaders, whereas IS is a complete anarchy hence being more dangerous. Its leader is Abu Al-Bakr, who proclaims himself to be the Caliph of Iraq.
Implications for India:
One, the entry of foreign jihadis/increase in number of foreign jihadis entering into India and their executing terrorist acts.
Two, subversion of the target Indian population, their joining the global jihad in greater numbers, and further committing acts of terror on Indian soil.
Three, impacts on Indian economy.
Other points include:
Nostalgia of caliphate and international jihad
The idea of caliphate evokes a deep nostalgia for Islam’s glory and power in the minds of Muslims around the world, Indian Muslims being no exception.
The aim of the IS caliphate is to establish Islamic world domination of which India forms a part. The map released by the IS shows India under the ‘Islamic State of Khorasan’ which comprises areas of Iran, the Central Asian republics, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Radicalization of Muslim youth
The establishment of IS has raised genuine concerns in the Indian security establishment about the radicalization of Indian Muslim youth.
Indian agencies have also warned of Al-Qaeda al-Hind (AQAH) penetration and alleged tie up with SIMI and Indian Mujahadeen (IM) to carry out terror activities in India. An offshoot of Al-Qaeda, AQAH is said to be involved in recruiting terror cells in IM’s fertile ground in Bihar, UP and Rajasthan to carry out Jihad in Syria and Iraq.
Jihad in Kashmir and cross border terrorism
The rise of IS may give a fillip to the jihadi forces in Kashmir and cross border terrorism.
Sectarianism and Shia Sunni conflict
The ISIS is a rabidly sectarian Sunni organisation. Post the takeover of major towns in western and northern Iraq, ISIS spokesperson Abu Muhammad al-Adnani pledged to transform Iraq into a living hell for ‘the Shia and other heretics’ and called upon the destruction of Shia holy sites of Najaf and Karbala. Intelligence agencies fear that the ripples of this sectarian conflict may soon be felt in India.
Impact on Indian economy
Middle East is extremely important for India geo strategically; its stability in India’s core national interest. India depends on the Middle East for much of its energy requirements and any increase in global oil prices may put a severe strain on India’s current account deficit and lead to inflationary pressure. India also has a large diaspora in the Middle East which remits nearly 30 billion dollars. Any instability in this region does not augur well for India.
In conclusion it can thus be said that the rise of the IS poses major challenge to India’s internal security and economic interests. India can no longer adopt an ostrich like approach and hope that the ISIS storm will pass away, with the country remaining unaffected. The threat is real both internally and externally and India will have to confront it head-on before it becomes too late.
Indian security agencies need to adopt a proactive approach in responding to these security challenges. To check radicalization of the Musim youth, authorities have to initiate a dialogue with every sections/sects of the Muslim society. The Ulemas and elders of the Muslim community have a responsibility to check the growth of these radical tendencies. India also needs to diversify its crude basket and remain engaged with the governments of the Middle East so that its energy supplies are not disrupted and the Indian diaspora remains safe.
(You can provide good innovative policy prescriptions)
4. A gender-neutral Domestic Violence Law harms rather than protects women. Critically comment.
The issue is in the new because Supreme Court has amended the Domestic Violence Law which has created a furore in the country. The Supreme Court reached a verdict in Hiral P. Harsora’ case, striking down the words “adult male” from Section 2(q) of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 (DV Act), thus paving the way for the law to be widened law to include women and minors. This verdict effectively meant that women and minors, and not just men, could now be charged for committing acts of domestic violence.
Many arguments are been given in favour as well as against this verdict. And many organizations are criticizing this step by saying that this change of making the law ‘Gender Neutral’ will harm rather than protect the women. Here we are not going to take any side, we are giving you both the aspect and you can make your answer accordingly.
Points against the Law:
Right now if the complaint is registered, the onus lies on the man to prove that he is not guilty. Making it gender neutral will cause counter litigations and an action will be prolonged in genuine cases.
The basic premise why a strict law was introduced earlier was that, that women were not vocal about the kind of violence they faced at their husband’s house. The main reason was social stigma of how to one’s own husband behind the bars. A strong law gave this confidence.
There is also the instance of the woman taking on the peripheral role of ‘victim’ in the criminal justice system, where she is just a witness and the case is really between the prosecuting state and the accused.
Lastly, the tough standard of proof beyond reasonable doubt would put any woman off seeking criminal remedies to the violence they may have suffered. Making the law lenient will again put women in the same hell. And once the man will know that she has spoken against him, he sufferings will increase.
Points in favour of this change:
The number of cases where men are the victims of violence – physical and mental, have increased.
There is no direct law to protect them.
It is also seen that violence against a women is mostly instigated by another women like mother in law, sister in law etc. so a law should be all encompassing.
Also women have been misusing this strong law to blackmail and torture men as they know that even if they lodge a false complaint, the onus will lie on the men to prove his innocence.
More points can be added according to your answer. Try give rational arguments for whatever side you take. In conclusion, don’t take a rigid stand.
According to Amartya Sen, “Justice is not found in law books, it is found in how we treat each other.” So at the end of the day it should be ensured that any victim (men or women) should get justice and in right time.
Best Answer: Meiji
The good thing about this answer is that, an opinion is taken and properly justified. One can have a different opinion as well.
India a signatory of Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) has adopted the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (PWDVA) which came into force in 2006.
The act explicitly protected women from domestic violence, who earlier had recourse only through some sections of IPC and there was no mention of domestic violence.
b. It recognizes emotional and sexual violence along with physical violence.
c. It grants residency rights, monetary relief, etc. to the victim.
Recently the SC has struck down the words “adult male” from the Act, meaning a victim (a woman who is a wife or in a relationship with a man) can take legal action against female relatives of the husband too. This is a welcome step. But some, people argued that the law was gravely misused for false cases, it is not gender neutral, etc.
A gender-neutral Domestic Violence Law would defeat the purpose of protecting married women. Though the customs are changing, it is a fact –
women leave their home to their husbands’ place post marriage,
b. Dowry is a reality and women are prone to domestic and sexual violence in their husband’s’ home.
c. India is largely a patriarchal society, though things are changing.
d. A gender neutral law would push women further away from taking legal recourse in wake of slapping false cases in retaliation by the husband’s’ family.
Though a gender-neutral law is desired, the time is not right for it. It should be introduced eventually with changing social norms and practices.
Your introduction should mention that India – Israel has been termed as a natural partner. Both the nations have so many similarities and have very good relationship especially in field of defence and technology. Recently, after the surgical strikes, many commentators try to find the relation and similarities in the attempts of India army and Israeli Army’s strategies.
You should highlight the difference in terms of history, geographical area and position of India and Israel. Also mention why India cannot have the same offensive strategy as Israel.
Israel’s creation and India- Pakistan partition
Hostile nature of Israel’s neighbourhood and presence of countries like Pakistan and china in India’s neighbor.
Both of them are the allies of Western countries especially US.
Both of them are fighting against terrorism
Disputed homeland, India – Pakistan have demarcated border except the area of Jammu and Kashmir.
Presence of Nuclear powers in India’s neighbor (may result in Mutually Assured destruction) whereas Israel is the only nuclear power in middle ease.
Presence of ISIS in area nearby Israel and the turmoil in Middle east.
Geographically, Israel is isolated in the area and surrounded by hostile countries which is not same for India.
Israel from the very start remain offensive whereas India even supports the cause of Palestine and torch bearer of Non-violence and Human rights in the world.
Your conclusion should say that though sometimes condition arises when India has to take offensive steps but by and large India’s conditions are different from Israel and it remain peaceful and believes in peaceful negotiations and diplomatic solutions. So, to compare India and Israel condition will not be justified just because of few steps or events.
The PM of India recently compared out surgical strike in POK to the israeli military retaliation against hamas terrorists. However the same doesnt apply to India vis a vis pakistan, or any of its neigh ours as:
1)historically, israel was founded as the natural homeland for once opressed jews. This gives it a distinct excuse to justify its militsry routines as exercises to protect the jewish faith and fight agains anti-semitism. Such rules dont apply to a multi faith india.
2) goegraphically, israel is the only non muslim democracy in an area of theoctatic orthodox islam. It also faces histocial hostilites from its neighbours (iran, saudi). This is in contrast to our peaceful coexistence in our neighbourhood.
3) against hamas, israel enjoys disproportinate military advantage, besides also being an alleged nuclear power. Any such military misadventure on indias part will result in mutually assured destruction (MAD).
4) Israel enjoys unwavering support from the superpower US ( protects it in UN) and its actions are on a not yet fully recognized nation. India has global aspirations, and any attack on another sovereign will undermine it globally.
The above factors point out the wide differences, despite political rhetoric betwewn india and israel.
Best Answer2: -Meiji
Israel, constitutionally a Jewish state is geographically located in a hostile neighborhood. India and Israel both suffer from state sponsored terrorism. Israel’s small area, history of wars fought and the geo-politics involved makes the situation quite different from India. India is a large country and located in a peaceful neighborhood barring the western border.
The differences in causes and convergence of affects may seem that India should resort to offence-based military strategy with its troubled neighbor. In wake of recent Surgical Strikes conducted by the army, along the LOC, has seen voices from certain quarters demanding more such incidents.
India a large country with diversity has other responsibilities of fending millions of poor and it is not advisable to engage in unnecessary wars.
India a law abiding state with international goodwill cannot act irresponsibly.
India is surrounded by nuclear armed states (unstable states too) unlike Israel.
Though the relation with Pakistan is troubled, its army isn’t a pushover.
So, a proper and safe course and India would be engaging its neighbor diplomatically and isolating it internationally. Offensive strategies may work strategically, but a prolonged use of such tactics would lead to unnecessary wars.
IASbaba imparts 360-degree IAS preparation solutions with their exhaustive Prelims and Mains preparation courses, supported by the latest UPSC preparation material. Avail our expert help by enrolling with us to keep your knowledge updated and stay ahead of your competition.
Most Trending and Trusted Programmes by UPSC Toppers :