1.The complex geography of border regions in India creates serious internal security challenges. Elucidate. What strategies would you suggest to overcome those challenges? Discuss.
This question again has two parts.
In first part if you need to check that there are two key parts – geography of border regions and internal security.
Diversity of borders can be justified as follows:
Arid and desert border with Pakistan (Rajasthan)
Alpine mountains with rugged features and glaciers (Pakistan and China)
Plains and foothills with Nepal
Dense forests with China, and Myanmar in the North – Eastern region
Large coastline open to international waters
Internal security problems:
(This part we have discussed in detail in a previous question. Now all those internal security problems has to be linked to the particular region.)
Difficult terrain of mountains and forests makes patrolling a very difficult activity.
Security forces have to face extreme conditions – like extreme heat of Thar and extreme cold of Siachin glacier.
Difficult terrain makes it difficult to fence the borders and hence makes them permeable.
Golden crescent in the west and Golden triangle in the East are responsible for Drug trafficking.
Dense Eastern border and border with Nepal and Bangladesh are notorious for human trafficking and smuggling.
It provides an easy escape route to Indian criminals (Naxals) to commit a crime here and cross the border.
Open seas has allowed many foreign elements to come inside the Indian Territory. Mumbai attack was an eye opener in this regard.
Indian youth are misguided and are taken across border to provide them militant training.
(Many more points can be added depending upon the word limit.)
Try to be intelligent while writing suggestions. They should not be vague and should be practical.
BSF and ITBP should be armed with better sophisticated weapons and work conditions should be improved to give them confidence.
Where ever possible, fencing of the border should be done.
Bilateral talks should be promoted between security forces as well as the government to create confidence and find a solution to border disputes.
In difficult areas surveillance should be done by means of drones and lasers.
IRNSS would be very helpful in making real time surveillance very accurate. It will be helpful in keeping an eye on the oceans.
‘Thanas’ near the bordering district should be made more powerful as they are the first source of information
Organising border Haats to build confidence.
(Note: do not put increasing the army personnel as a solution. More points can be added)
Best Answer : Ashis Kar
India harbors 15000 KMS of land border neighboring nine countries most of which are not drawn in tandem with natural terrain and slopes which makes it difficult to manage. The types of geographical complexities Indian land border faces are:
Ø Altitude and Terrain: The bordering states of J&K, Sikkim, Arunachala Pradesh and other NE states border with Pakistan, China and Myanmar respectively. Terrorist and insurgent infiltration are some issue in these areas. Unrest in J&K valley is a result of this.
Ø Swampy areas: Borders with Pakistan along Gujrat and Bangladesh along Sundarbans consists of swampy areas. Smuggling of cattle, fake notes and drugs are high in these areas.
Ø Deserts and forests: Pakistan border along Thar Desert is well known for smuggling of Arms. Extremists such as Nagas and Naxalites take advantage of dense forest along NE states and West begal to create a safe haven.
Some ways in which these can be managed are :
Ø Use of Technology: India being a hub of science and tech should use it to its advantage manage border areas. Implementation of Drones such as Nishant UAV of DRDO in high altitude terrains can be helpful. Also investment upped in use of laser beam and thermal cameras. Use of IRNSS for monitoring can be huge boost.
Ø Development of Border states: Intensifying the Border area development program which funds states via planning commission to invest in education, job creation and infra will go long way in managing borders.
Ø Bilateral institution mechanism: Talks at secretary levels and further confidence building measures should be undertaken for complex border areas.
Ø Special water wings: Better patrol boats for monitoring along sunderbans and Sir creek area.
The Internal issues such as unrest in Kashmir valley, demand for separate states, anti-India rhetoric, Naxalism are very much related to unstable borders of our country. Its high time these get due attention
2.The nexus between organized crime and terrorism is fueled by black money. Discuss. Do you think the recent demonetization drive will have any impact on this nexus? Examine.
Write a short introduction.
Since India lies in the vicinity of the golden triangle the money from the organized drug sale is being used to procure arms and finance terrorist activities.
Terrorist activities require huge amount of funding, as it cannot be financed through legal traceable means, black money provides the protection.
Organized crimes like drugs, kidnapping for ransom and protection money provide continuous source to fund the terrorist activities.
Although there exists organizational and political linkages between organized crime groups and terrorist groups, black money is the most vital link.
The effect of demonetization on the nexus between organized crime and terrorism:
Insurgency groups and Maoists raise most of its fund through crowd financing and local organized crime activities. Demonetization causes a money crunch which would breakdown their terrorist funding for a while, but it could be restored in future. An associated shift to cashless economy and implementation of effective governance can starve these financing routes.
Arm trafficking and fake currency are main features of nexus between organized crime and terrorism in Kashmir. Both can be curbed for a while by demonetization. Fake currency may hit back soon as well as trafficking channels. A permanent solution requires policies to block generation of black money and strict implementation of law and order.
Many of the Human trafficking rings that were fully funded by cash are finding it difficult to find prospective buyers, as the Money with both the middlemen and supplier has been locked in the bank accounts.
Organized crimes are criminal activities that are planned and controlled by powerful groups and carried out on a large scale. Terrorism is the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims. Black money is income illegally obtained or not declared for tax purposes. These three are social evils which are entwined in each other.
Black money generating activities can be smuggling of arms, drugs etc., or human trafficking, counterfeit notes, gambling or any activity which is prohibited by law, in short made via organized crime. This black money is then routed to fund terrorist activities as the money is literally untraceable and covers up its tracks as its passed around.
IMPACT OF DEMONETIZATION ON THIS NEXUS
-As of March 2016 currency in circulation amounted(value) to ? 16.415 – 16.42 lakh Crore.
Of this, ? 500 notes accounted for 47.8% in value and ? 1,000 notes another 38.6%. Together, they were more than 86% of the value of the notes in circulation.
– Banning of notes of denomination 1000 and 500 dealt a serious blow to this nexus as 99% of black money is stored in these denominations. This was evident from the decrease in the stone pelting events in Kashmir.
– The ban washed out the fake notes circulating in the economy making them worthless.
– Overnight black money was hit and termed waste as evident from instances of finding currency notes in waste pits and drain.
– The current measures are likely to destroy about 12% of the black economy in India.
Global experience in the past has shown that the impact of such measures have been fairly short-lived as it does not attack/plug the mechanism that gives rise to black income, Hence in the longer run black money generation needs to be the target area. Only then this nexus will be dealt a serious blow.
3. Having a secure and stable coastal boundary is imperative for India’s growth. Discuss. What measures have been adopted recently to achieve this objective? Explain.
India has a coastal length of 7500kms, which can help India becoming economically developed or expose it to variety of external threats.
90% (by volume) of India’s International trade is carried through sea routes. India is hoping to be a production and export hub in future which intensifies the role and potential of coastal boundaries as trade channels.
India lies in the middle of one of the busiest maritime trade routes, so the safety of the ships and cargos will be important for India’s economic growth.
Many crucial critical infrastructure such as the Nuclear power plants, Oil reserve facilities etc. are located in the coastal areas, any damage to them will be catastrophic for the whole area.
If the coastal areas are not secure, guarding the northern borders will be useless as instead of war between the defense forces the enemy states will engage is proxy wars through the maritime routes.eg: Mumbai Taj attack.
The growing influence of China in the Indian Ocean region is disturbing for India as many of the Chinese ships can be used for spying on India.
Contrabands such as drugs, gold and pirated goods are imported into India through the vulnerable spots in the coastline, so protecting it is imperative for the economic its well being
Recent Steps taken by the Government:
National Committee for Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security (NCSMCS), headed by the Cabinet Secretary, coordinates all matters related to Maritime and Coastal Security.
2.Joint Operations Centres (JOCs), set up by the Navy as command and control hubs for coastal security at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and Port Blair.
3.Modernization and capacity building: Advanced surveillance technologies including radars, satellite assisted patrolling vessels, coastal police stations etc.
4.Coastal patrolling by Navy, Coast Guard and marine police increased
5.Joint exercises to improve inter-agency coordination.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Smile
India has coastline of 7516.6 Km and India’s coasts have always been vulnerable to anti-national activities such as smuggling of goods, gold, narcotics, explosives, arms and infiltration of terrorists into the country.
Reasons for having a secure coastal boundary for India’s growth are:
1. Security of critical infrastructures such as oil refineries, atomic power plants, space stations, ports and naval bases exist along the coastline.
2.Maritime trade accounts for 90% India’s international trade.
3.Special Economic Zones (SEZs) such as: Kandla SEZ, Santacruz Electronics Export Processing Zone etc
4. other challenges include Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean, , fishermen issue, sea piracy.
Measures adopted by government:
1.Expediting the implementation of coastal security scheme
2.Speedy delivery of 204 interceptor boats
3.Easing of environmental norms for setting up coastal police stations
4.Issuance of multi-purpose identity cards to all fishermen, sea ferrying personnel and coastal villages
5. Implementation of uniform licensing of fishing boats across the country
6. Installation of special transponders and global positioning system on registered boats for identification and tracking
7. Deployment of commando units of Central Industrial Security Force in all ports
Constitution of a unified command for coastal districts to counter terrorist threats from the sea
But still some challenges exists such as inadequate trained manpower, sophisticated arms for Coastal police stations . Personnel in these police stations are reluctant to undertake sea patrolling.Coordination between different agencies creates further problem.
Steps like creation of coastal security commission for streamlining policies and encouraging coordination. Resolution of issue of Coastal police funding between centre and state can further improve the state of coastal security.
4. The recommendations of Lodha Committee for BCCI must extend its tenets to other sports bodies in India. Do you agree? Substantiate.
(Provide the concerns/problems in other sports or all sports in basic)
Sports administration in India has fallen into the hands of the “moneyed and powerful few.” Games like kabbadi, hockey, wrestling — all sports which were once the forte of India — have been reduced to pale shadows of their former selves in the hands of administrators who run National Sports Federations in the country.
The other sports like hockey, badminton and athletics are also facing similar problems and this can be gauged from the performance of our players in the recent Olympics.
Sports administration has become a refuge for “cabals, coterie, manipulations and intrigue.” Money, influence and chicanery play the dominant part in sports administration, not the welfare of the game or the player.
Why Lodha Committee recommendations must extend to other sports? (Provide any 5-6 points, but try to club some of the recommendations along)
Incorporating such recommendations within the National Sports Development Code of India, 2011, will ensure transparent functioning of all national sports federations and their respective state entities.
Necessary to bring about transparency and to maintain institutional integrity of the National Sports Federations
It will ensure ultimate goal of good governance of national sports, which is in the larger interest of the nation.
The good governance of National Sports Federations is directly related to the development of the concerned sport in India, and is also related to the quality of performance and opportunities available to the Indian sportspersons.
The administration of sports is engulfed with political influences and corruption which ultimately leads to the detriment of the sport and affects the performance of the sportspersons, especially since it also leads to the lack of sports facilities and training facilities.
Lodha panel reforms include making sports bodies immune to political meddling.
Further, instances of sexual harassment have also caused women and girls to be discouraged from participating in sporting activities.
Recommendations like ‘One State One Vote’, uniformity of structure in State associations, limited tenures for office-bearers and compulsory cooling-off periods, a voice for players, etc., should be implemented in other sporting bodies also.
Most of the sports bodies in India like Sports Authority of India, Indian hockey Federation, Cycling Federation of India etc are accused of their inefficiencies and incapacity to nurture and bring up world class players from a country with such a huge population.
End your answer with an apt conclusion.
Best answer: Wolveruddin
India had sent its largest contingent to Olympics in 2016, but the final rank was 67. An irony of a nation of billion people. Some major challenges to sports in India are :
Institutional Authoritarianism: Improper, disorganised and corrupt institutions representing the sports fraternity. Example- Recent IPL scams, Indian Hockey Federation and its subsequent suspension.
Lacunae of regulatory bodies: Absence of regulatory bodies for management of sports authority which has a nexus nature of governance.
Politicisation and bureaucratisation for non tangible(post retirement) benefits or tangible (monetary) benefits.
Old and aged top management which has an ivory tower complacent approach.
Huge gender,cast,regional and social status based bias in selection of players. This act as a source of hopelessness for budding talents.
How Lodha Committee addresses these issues ?
Transparency and accountability : Bringing BCCI under the ambit of RTI act.
De-politicisation and De-bureaucratisation of the governing body.
One person should hold one post in cricket administration to avoid any conflict of interest and bringing democratic ethos in the organisation.
One state, One vote hence remote states have an equal say. This would be lead to a more inclusive and merit based selection.
Age tapping, cooling off period and limited tenure will help to replace ageing administration.
Middle class in India see sports as a leisure activity and not as a profession.This attitudinal change should be coupled with implementation of the proposed National sports development code. The NITI aayog has also come up with a roadmap to help India achieve 50 medals in 2024 summer Olympics. Budgetary allocations for sports should be increased.India has a long way to go in revamping its absent sports infrastructure but this start is definitely a step in the right direction.
5. The hidden potential of women and Dalit entrepreneurship must be tapped to ensure a wholesome start-up ecosystem. Elucidate.
Successive census reports on enterprises outside agriculture show that Women and Dalits own far fewer businesses than we should expect from their share of the total Indian population.
The potential of women and Dalit entrepreneurs has not been tapped due to
Lack of access to existing trust-based community networks which are dominated by members of one community. It is very difficult for a Dalit or a woman entrepreneur to break into these networks, a challenge that is perhaps even more difficult than getting bank loans.
Majority of potential women and dalits today continue to live on subsistence wages and are found working in informal labour market arrangements, both in the rural and urban areas.
Dalits occupy a different place in production chain and are found to be at the bottom of the ladder characterizing low productivity, survival activities etc. As a result, entrepreneurship for social mobility remains an unattained dream in India.
Knowledge intensive production systems are dominated by upper castes and dalits serve only as wage labourers in these production structures.
They are not been able to market their entrepreneurial potential well because of the social stigma they face in the society as a result of the patriarchal mindset and some irrational traditional beliefs like the concept of ‘pollution’ that a large part of the Indian society still holds onto.
Lack of capital access due to poor economic status and lack of collateral for loan
Other points can be Glass ceiling effects, Caste and gender discrimination etc
Make your answers strong by providing few examples of women and dalit entrepreneurs.
Conclude your answer with recent ‘Stand Up India’ For Women And Dalit Entrepreneurs scheme and MUDRA programme which aims to provide equal opportunities to entrepreneurs from every spectrum of India, especially who find it hard to make their way into the world.
Best answer 1: Mary
Women and Dalits are two groups in general who have not been able to market their entrepreneurial potential well because of the social stigma they face in the society as a result of the patriarchal mindset and some irrational traditional beliefs like the concept of ‘pollution’ that a large part of the Indian society still holds onto.
But when given a chance to unleash their talents, they have proved to be successful entrepreneurs and large employment generators of their locality. For instance under the Kudumbashree programme of Kerala women under which credit and marketing support were provided to sell home-made food items. Drawing inspiration from this model many women entrepreneurs emerged with their household based start-ups for organic products, food-items etc. generating large-scale employment.
Similarly if dalits are given logistical support, many of their traditional handicrafts which has huge export potential could lead to a thriving start-up ecosystem. Often in villages where untouchability still exist in indirect forms, dalit entrepreneurships are nipped in bud itself because of lack of market. Hence, local governments need to play a major role in identifying such dalit entrepreneurs and providing them with the necessary marketing and credit facilities.
Government initiatives like Stand-UP India, special provisions under MUDRA bank are steps in the right direction for promoting women and dalit entrepreneurship. But apart from credit support, government along with local NGOs need to identify such potential entrepreneurs and more importantly help them fight the social stigmas that they in the society to unleash a successful start-up ecosystem
Best answer 2: Vivek
In India, gender discrimination begins even before a girl child is born. This evilness is then carried to all levels of her life. The same is reflected in women workforce level, which currently stands at mere low of 27%. This indicates that 73% of women or 1/3 of the total population is economically suppressed without giving any value or importance. In this scenario, what we need now is not further welfare schemes, but a movement to enable women of our country think, earn and live independently. Here comes the importance and relevance of extending start-up ecosystem to women, which includes providing financial and other support to set up businesses.
Secondly, another social evil that cuts deep through the modern constitutional values of India is the prevailing caste based discrimination. Dalits still remains economically untouched. Benefits of reservation failed to tickle down to the root end of the society. If this social system have to change, we have to make possible a decent living opportunity with a minimum level of economic freedom to dalits. ‘Start up’ can be very vital in realizing this as it gives a business support as well as lead integration of dalits into mainstream economy.
Further, data reveals that more than 90% of micro/small enterprises in India remains unregistered – significant number of women and dalits are employed in such enterprises. But due to their traditional work set up, they suffer from severe problems such as low credit availability, low productivity, lack of skill/competence etc. This results in extremely low wages for workers and thereby re-installing poverty in the society. The potential of start up missions in developing such enterprises is huge and can bring revolutionary changes in the lives of downtrodden sections of society including women and dalits.
Thus, the start up ecosystem in India will remains incomplete if it fails to integrate weaker sections of society, i.e. women and dalits into it. Recent Government initiatives such as ‘Start Up India, Stand Up India’ and MUDRA Bank are highly welcomed, but much more have to be done to trigger ground level confidence and changes.
IASbaba imparts 360-degree IAS preparation solutions with their exhaustive Prelims and Mains preparation courses, supported by the latest UPSC preparation material. Avail our expert help by enrolling with us to keep your knowledge updated and stay ahead of your competition.
Most Trending and Trusted Programmes by UPSC Toppers :