Population based prevention, screening and control programme for five non-communicable diseases.
(Topic: Issues related to health)
About— Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs) which are Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) such as heart attacks and stroke, Diabetes, Chronic Respiratory Diseases (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases and Asthma) and Cancer inter alia account for over 60% of all mortality in India.
According to the World Economic Forum, India stands to lose $ 4.58 trillion between 2012 and 2030 due to non-communicable diseases.
Importance of early identifying
Since these conditions do not exhibit symptoms until complications set in, it is essential to detect them early.
Early detection of NCDs not only enables onset of treatment but prevents high financial costs and suffering.
For some cancers, survival rates are good when they are detected and treated in the early stages.
Screening for these conditions, which can be undertaken at the level of the sub centre or Primary health Centres helps early detection and also serves to raise health awareness among people to lead healthy lifestyles.
Given that primary health care, including prevention and health promotion can lead to improved health and developmental outcomes at much lower cost.
As part of the National Health Mission, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is launching population based prevention, screening and control programme for five common non-communicable diseases, namely—
Oral cavity cancer
Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana – 2017
(Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections)
Objective— To provide social security during old age and protect elderly persons aged 60 years and above against a future fall in their interest income due to uncertain market conditions.
Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana(VPBY)-2017
The scheme will provide an assured pension based on a guaranteed rate of return of 8% per annum for ten years, with an option to opt for pension on a monthly / quarterly / half yearly and annual basis.
The differential return, i.e., the difference between the return generated by LIC and the assured return of 8% per annum would be borne by Government of India as subsidy on an annual basis.
VPBY-2017 is proposed to be open for subscription for a period of one year from the date of launch.
Implemented through LIC
IIMs to be declared as Institutions of National Importance
About— The Union Cabinet has approved the Indian Institute of Management(IIM) Bill, 2017, under which the IIMs would be declared as Institutions of National Importance which will enable them to grant degrees to their students.
Salient features of the Bill:
IIMs can grant degrees to their students
The Bill provides for complete autonomy to the Institutions, combined with adequate accountability.
Management of these Institutions would be Board driven, with the Chairperson and Director of an Institution which will be selected by the Board.
A greater participation of experts and alumni in the Board is amongst other important features of the Bill.
Provision has also been made for inclusion of women and members from Scheduled Castes/Tribes in the Board.
The Bill also provides for periodic review of the performance of Institutions by independent agencies, and placing the results of the same on public domain.
The Annual Report of the Institutions will be placed in the Parliament and CAG will be auditing their accounts.
There is also a provision of Coordination Forum of IIMs as an advisory body.
Joint International Taskforce on Shared Intelligence and Collaboration (JITSIC)
About– India participated in the Joint International Taskforce on Shared Intelligence and Collaboration (JITSIC) meeting held in Paris. 30 Revenue Authorities shared their findings on investigations arising from the Panama Papers; including the role of tax intermediaries such as financial institutions, advisers etc, who facilitate tax evasion.
The meeting included sharing of best practices and information between participating member countries based on legal instruments under the tax treaties and OECD and Council of Europe Multilateral Convention.
The sharing of this information within a group of this size is unique and sets the basis for greater cooperation amongst tax administrations.
Significant achievements have been made including the development of uniform approaches to requesting information between treaty partners, clearer understanding of the evasion typologies adapted by intermediaries, and new techniques for collating intelligence.
JITSIC will continue to draw on the best intelligence capabilities from tax authorities around the world and share best practices for data analysis and collaboration on intelligence.
Rubber Soil Information System (RubSIS) for Rubber Growers
(Topic: Commerce and Industry)
About–Rubber Soil Information System (RubSIS), an online system for recommending application of appropriate mix of fertilizers to the specific plantations of rubber growers depending upon their soil nature.
Advantages of RubSIS
Provides soil data to the rubber growers and recommends the optimum mix and quantities of chemical fertilizers that his holding requires.
It is a cost effective tool for sustainable &scientific management of rubber growing soils.
Apart from preventing indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and soil degradation, adoption of RubSIS will lead to reduction in the cost of production of rubber, increase in productivity and reduction in environmental pollution.
Scheme launched in Kottayam (Kerela), the largest rubber growing district of India which will be extended to the entire traditional rubber growing region i.e. the states of Kerela and Tamilnadu this year.
Ratification of the Second Commitment Period of Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(Topic: Climate change)
About—Cabinet has given its approval to ratify the Second Commitment Period of the Kyoto Protocol on containing the emission of Green House Gases (GHGs). The second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 2012. So far, 75 countries have ratified the Second Commitment Period.
Significance for India
Underlines India’s leadership in the comity of nations committed to global cause of environmental protection and climate justice.
Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by India will encourage other developing countries also to undertake this exercise.
Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects under this commitment period in accordance with Sustainable Development priorities will attract some investments in India as well.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) seeks to stabilise Green House Gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would minimize interference with the climate system.
Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) in the atmosphere, the Kyoto Protocol places commitments on developed nations to undertake mitigation targets and to provide financial resources and transfer of technology to the developing nations.
Developing countries like India have no mandatory mitigation obligations or targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997
First commitment period was from 2008-2012.
At Doha in 2012, the amendments to Kyoto Protocol for the 2nd commitment period (the Doha Amendment) were successfully adopted for the period 2013- 2020. Developed countries have already started implementing their commitments under the ‘opt-in’ provisions of the Doha Amendment.
India has always emphasized the importance of climate actions by developed country Parties in the pre-2020 period. Besides, it has advocated climate actions based on the principles and provisions of the Convention, such as the principle of Equity and Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR & RC).
CBDT issues Guiding Principles for determination of Place of Effective Management (POEM) of a Company
About– The concept of Place of Effective Management (POEM) for deciding the Residential Status of a company was introduced by the Finance Act, 2015.
The intent is to target shell companies and companies which are created for retaining income outside India although real control and management of affairs is located in India.
It is emphasised that these guidelines are not intended to cover foreign companies or to tax their global income, merely on the ground of presence of Permanent Establishment or Business connection in India.
POEM guidelines shall not apply to companies having turnover or gross receipts of Rs. Fifty (50) Crore or less in a financial year.
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