1. The rise of nationalism in India during the 19th century was different in character than its western counterparts. Do you agree? Examine.
Before 19th century, the idea of a nation as it is now, was absent. The kings were ruling and new territories were forming everyday as a result of annexations. The condition of Europe and India was similar in this sense.
In 19th century the idea of Nation was developed, but it was different in character in Europe and India.
Development of the idea: It came as a process in Europe with French revolution and ideas put forward by several thinkers. It gradually developed. But in India, it came mostly due to European ideas when modern educated Indians borrowed these ideas from Europe.
Type of Unity: India and Europe had a heterogenous society. But the idea of Nationalism united people of similar linguistic or racial identities in Europe eg. French, German, Italian etc. In India, the nationalism came as a counter to a common enemy, the British.
The Europen Natioanalism divided Europe and united people of similar identities, In India, nationalism united the people of different identities and idea of Unity in Diversity developed.
Rule: In Europe, the feeling of Nationalism was invoked to pacify masses and rule over them, while in India, The feeling was invoked to mobilize people to over throw the rule and establish Indian democracy.
Note: Many of you have written good points, but these are the key points that you had to mention.
2. The process of industrialization in Europe and that of deindustrialization in India were two faces of the same coin. Elucidate.
The political subjugation of India was largely due to the mercantile and imperialist policies of the East India Company which expanded the political exploitation to legal and economic spheres as well.
The nineteenth century Europe was the cradle of innovation and capital investment, which was looking for expanding its trade, the negative balance of trade by import of luxury items from Indian subcontinent was reversed by the political control of the land and the imports.
Before the European industrialization, Europe was market for Indian luxury item and spices, the industrialization process inverted this relationship. This happened in the following ways:
Commercialization of agriculture: Agriculture was commercialized in terms of those crops and produce which was in demand in Europe. Indian farmers were forced to grow such cash crops like Indigo to meet the global demand.
De-industrialization: Exports out of India was highly taxed while the finished goods from British were imported duty free in India. This reduced the demand of Indian goods in global markets and made India a dumping ground to finished British goods. E.g. the finished cotton was taxed more than twice while the finished cotton products from England were made duty free.
Unilateral foreign and trade policy: Indian traders were not allowed to form trade agreements or foreign policies with other countries for trade and commerce. The traders of domestic goods could not compete with the foreign competition and moved towards trade of foreign goods.
Railways: Railways was the final nail in coffin which intensified the drain of natural resources from India by connecting the remote areas of the country with ports.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Black Swan
The dawn of industrialisation can be seen as a new era in human civilization. Factors attributed to Industrialisation in Europe especially in Britain are:
1. Availability of Resources such as coal and iron
2. Lack of workforce and high wages made it imperative to find a new way of producing more with less investment.
3. Given its geographical location, Britain has relatively immune to the political turmoil
In addition, the factor which immensely contributed to the rapid rise of industrialization in Europe, especially Britain is the ‘possession of colonies’. They acted as a supplier of raw materials at throwaway prices and a market for finished goods thus giving thrust.
Before the advent of Europeans, India was self-sufficient, prosperous and politically stable. In the beginning of colonial rule, the exploitation was limited to the export of goods such as silk, spices which were in great demand.
But once the industrialization started, following were the changes:
1. India became a mere supplier of raw materials.
2. The colonies held by Europeans and discriminatory policies towards Indian goods restricted any export.
3. Traditional livelihood such as food grains (cash crops and plantations was encouraged) and handicrafts took a setback
4. The myth of superior race restricted us from looking at the true picture
Dadabhai Naoroji put forward the Drain of wealth where he pointed out the true nature of colonial rule. The introduction of railways and telegraph, educational and judicial reforms was to serve British interests and not for development of India. The series of famine, abysmal educational rate and low GDP are testimony to de-industrialisation that happened in India led by industrialisation in Europe.
3. Discuss the context in which Quit India movement was launched. What was its impact? Discuss.
Quit India movement was mass based freedom struggle movement. It has been variously describes as the “People’s Movement” and “Leaderless movement”.
Context of the movement:
Failure of Cripps mission: Cripps mission was sent from Britain to negotiate with Indian leaders to support Britain in WW-2. Indian National congress has declared Purna Swaraj as final goal in Lahore session in 1928 and was not ready to concede on this. While British government was promising only dominion that too after war.
Escalation of Prices and food shortage: WW-2 has increase demand of goods which lead to escalation of prices. Food and other good were supplied to soldiers from India and common people have bear it repercussion in form of high prices. Public was more ready for mass based movement than our leaders.
Advancement of Japan: Japan was advancing toward India after subjugating South East Asia. Indian saw it as opportunities to over-throw the British.
The British saw the threat it posed and arrested all the major national leaders before the dawn of the day, the whole movement was carried out by the masses without the leaders.
Impact of the movement:
QIM demoralized British government to rule India. People participated without any guides and attacked the symbols of British authority. In many places self-rule local governments were established. This pressurized British government to accept demands of congress. So, the British lifted Ban on Congress and National leaders were released from prison.
Paved the way for constitutional proposal of the Cabinet Mission. Latter Constituent assembly was organized on the Mission’s recommendations.
Relent on INA Trails: The British were in favor to punish every participant on treason charges but due to QIM has forced the British to be relent on trial.
4. What is intelligent transportation system? What are its components? Why is it needed badly in Indian cities? Examine.
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is an emerging transportation system which is comprised of an advanced information and telecommunications network for users, roads and vehicles. ITS is the integrated application of advanced Technologies using electronics, computers, communications, and advanced sensors. These applications provide travelers with important information while improving the safety and efficiency of the transportation system.
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is essentially the application of computer and communications technologies coming in aid of the transport problems. ITS technologies enable gathering of data or intelligence and then providing timely feedback to traffic managers and road-users. ITS results in improved safety to drivers, better traffic efficiency, reduced traffic congestion, improved energy efficiency and environmental quality and enhanced economic productivity. Some examples of ITS include Advanced Traffic Management Systems, Advanced Traveller Information Systems, Advanced Vehicle Control Systems, Electronic Toll Collection Systems, Advanced Public Transportation Systems et al.
Components of ITS include:
(1) Accurate tracking system :
GPS enabled vehicles along with smartphone apps will help citizens to track buses and other vehicles.
(2) Electronic timetables :
Schedules of bus service should be updated in standard format which can be easily read by people and utilised by softwares.
(3) Smart model to predict time of arrival :
Transportation studies like that be conducted in IIT Madras, funded by Ministry of Urban Development. should be encouraged to obtain a robust algorithm to predict the arrival time of buses, which is what a citizen needs.
(4) Comfortable seats
Buses should offer a comfortable journey to commuters. Infrastructure on Indian buses need a make up.
(5) Standardisation by regulating authority
An authority should be set up which can standardise various components of the public transport and encourage use of better and smart IT services in transport sector.
Why is it needed badly in Indian cities?
The main aim of using such technologies in transport is to alleviate existing concerns including traffic congestion, air and noise pollution by enhancing data collection for addressing the transport-related concerns.
Over the past two decades, India has established itself as a leader in information technology (IT). However, the subsequent economic boom has also resulted in an exponential increase in motorisation, urban traffic congestion and deterioration of air quality in the Indian megacities. With a robust IT and telecom infrastructure in place, India stands to gain from the use of ITS to alleviate many transport related urban issues.
5. The Swachcha Bharat mission is not only a cleanliness campaign but also a socio-economic movement. Elaborate.
Sanitation is linked with development agenda and it is being projected as the tool for social change. With Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, India is entering into an era of toilet revolution.
Swacch Bharat mission was launched in 2014 with main aim of promoting cleanliness across the country(rural as well as urban), and special focus to eliminated open defecation by 2019. The mission not just involves toilets construction, but has taken socio economic reality of our country and has come out with a socio economic movement to achieve its goal.
Elaborate why Swachcha Bharat mission is not only a cleanliness campaign but also a socio-economic movement. Highlight the objectives and socio-economic outcomes of the SBM.
Cover both the aspects – Economic benefits and Social benefits (refer best answers)
Best answer 1: Akash
Swacch Bharat mission was launched in 2014 with main aim of promoting cleanliness across the country(rural as well as urban), and special focus to eliminated open defecation by 2019.
The mission not just involves toilets construction , but has taken socio economic reality of our country and has come out with a socio economic movement to achieve its goal through following works:
It focuses on contruction of private and community toilet complexes along with provision of water . There is plan to convert insanitary latrines into flushed ones
It aims to eliminate manual scavenging and protect the human rights and dignity of manual scavengers.
Household toilets will increase safety and security of women and protect their dignity.
Community participation is an important element of SBM
the focus is not just on toilets but wider dimensions of cleanliness . It includes keeping surrounding clean, public transport clean, solid and liquid waste management through sewage treatment plants.
It has special focus on attitudinal and behavioural changes. For this there is multi dimensional focus by involving celebrities, teachers , students, children, anganwadi workers, NGOs in bringing awareness and enforce attitudinal and behavioural changes .
Thus swacch bharat mission is a socioeconomic movement which will in long way improve sanitation and health , uphold the dignity of women and marginalised sections and ensure their safety and security .
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