1. Coastal ecosystem has many threats that emanate from human activities. In this regard, many suggestions have come up which include the setting up of a regulatory body. How effective is such regulation in maintaining the ecological integrity of the coastal areas? Analyse.
The question clearly asks about the effectiveness of a new regulatory body but all of you have written are the anthropogenic threats to coastal ecosystem.
You could have mentioned some threats in the introduction or in a flowchart form and then directly jump to regulatory authority.
A new regulatory authority can be a good or a bad thing. It depends upon the ambit which the authority gets. In India there is a habit of making many regulatory authorities and then they become defunct. Many authorities have same mandate and their roles clash, making it difficult for one authority to take positive action. Many a times two authorities give contradictory recommendations.
Coastal Regulation Zone 1991 was notified in 1991 which comes under Ministry of Environment and Forest to protect the costal ecosystem. Central Pollution Control Board and National Water Quality Monitoring Program are there. Instead of creating a new regulatory mechanism, the offices which have already been created should be given more power and accountability.
If a new authority is made than its work should be clearly specified and should be different from the previous authorities than only it will be effective.
Best Answer : Neha
India has a long coastline about 7516 km and a large no of people on dependent upon coastal areas for their livelihood. Coastal areas are a rich source of marine boidiversity and also act as shield in case of natural disasters such as floods and Tsunamis.
Human activites such as discharge of waste in coastal areas, mining, oil spills, illegal construction near coastal areas etc adversly affects the coastal areas and the marine organisms.
To regulate the activities Committees such as District Level Committee in 2011 and subsequently Shailesh Nayak Committee was formed to review the recommendations of 2011 committee.
The Committee demarcated the coastlines into 4 zones as CRZ 1,2 , 3 and 4(coastal regulatory zones ) , CRZ 1 being the most sensitive and specified the activites that were permitted within these zones.
The varoius regulations set in the recomendations such as specifiying no construction area , fishing area etc.
Although the recommendations are step in the right direction but still there is illegal construction due the large population and dependence of a large no of people on fishing in sensitive areas and discharge of waste in the coastal areas which harms the ecosystem. There is a dire need to implement the recommendations of the Committee and prevent the sensitive areas from the adverse effects of human activities.
2. Delhi has been denied to host the junior football world cup matches post Diwali due to anticipated levels of pollution. It serves as a wake up call for all Delhites to do something substantial with respect to air quality in the capital. Discuss.
The question is pretty straight forward. You had to discuss the problem of pollution in Delhi.
There need to be three parts of your answer. The reason for excessive pollution, the impact on environment and human population and the ways to control it.
The air quality in Delhi, the capital of India, according to a WHO survey of 1600 world cities, is the worst of any major city in the world. India has the world’s highest death rate from chronic respiratory diseases and asthma, according to the WHO. In Delhi, poor quality air damages irreversibly the lungs of 2.2 million or 50 percent of all children.
Major causes of Air pollution in Delhi:
Motor vehicle emissions are one of the causes of poor air quality. According to some reports, 80 per cent of PM2.5 air pollution is caused by vehicular traffic, though other reports suggest the percentage is lower. Other causes include wood-burning fires, fires on agricultural land, exhaust from diesel generators, dust from construction sites, and burning garbage. Illegal industrial activities and construction in Delhi is also a major contributor in particulate matter.
The Badarpur Thermal Power Station, a coal-fired power plant built in 1973, is another major source of air pollution in Delhi. Despite producing less than 8% of the city’s electric power, it produces 80 to 90% of the particulate matter pollution from the electric power sector in Delhi.
2 million children in Delhi have irreversible lung damage due to the poor quality of the air. In addition, research shows that pollution can lower children’s intelligence quotient and increase the risks of autism, epilepsy, diabetes and even adult-onset diseases like multiple sclerosis.
Poor air quality is a cause of reduced lung capacity, headaches, sore throats, coughs, fatigue, and early death.
It causes eye problems as well.
It has also affected the vegetation by covering the leaves with a thick layer of dust and hindering the photosynthesis and respiratory activities.
Illegal construction and industries should be stopped with immediate effect.
A cap should be placed on the number of vehicles owned by a family. Habit of car pooling should be encouraged.
People should be encouraged to use public transport.
CNG should be promoted.
Open burning of garbage and crop waste should be banned. Ban should be implemented strictly.
Modern air filters should be placed at busy areas of the city to constantly clean the ambient air.
(Note: This is only the hint. You can add many more points)
3. What are the effects of excessive sand mining on the river ecosystem? Also discuss its long term implications for livelihood security.
Sand is the soil of the river providing and sustaining virtually all life that exist in the river. Along with the gravels, it forms an intermediate zone between the surface water and ground water beneath.
The rivers in the country are fast turning into streams of despair because of exploitative and unscientific mining Due to boom in real estate/ construction activities specially in post liberalization era, there has been a major spike in the sand (beach and river basin) requirement. It has resulted in unscientific and indiscriminate sand mining against the prescribed rules, also known as illegal sand mining.
Many states of India like Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Mahashtra etc. have witnessed increased incidences in recent past. It has affected the river ecology as follows
It pollutes the rivers (low PH, mix of various metal oxides, reduces oxygen and thus, increased BOD ). This badly affects river biota.
Instream sand mining results in the destruction of aquatic and riparian habitat through large changes in the channel morphology. Impacts include bed degradation, bed coarsening, lowered water tables near the streambed, and channel instability.
The indiscriminate mining has also destroyed hills, eroded biodiversity spheres, denuded forests and degraded fertile soil. It has changed the physical characteristics of river basins, impacting heavily the socio-economic condition of local people.
Sand mining generates extra vehicle traffic, which negatively impairs the environment.
This excessive mining not only impact river ecology but also affect livelihood of people living in these regions.
Polluted water and also reduced ground water levels due to sand mining lead to drinking water shortage and also agrarian distress in the vicinity, which in turn has triggered an exodus of people to urban clusters, upsetting the economic and cultural balance of a society. Also, creates social –tension.
Illegal sand mining also results in damage to physical infrastructure (like railways, bridges, highways etc.) nearby, resulting in further economic distress of the community.
Having said that, we certainly need sand for to meet the increasing demand. Sand mining also employs nearly 1.1 million in the country.
Hence, the need to is better implement legislative mechanisms and various judicial pronouncements for sustainable sand mining. Effective and periodic monitoring is also a must. Additionally, we should also look for quality yet affordable alternatives to sand to meet ever increasing demand for sand without compromising riverine ecology and badly affecting people nearby due to illegal sand mining.
4.Menstruation is still a taboo in 21st century India. Why? How do women suffer due to the associated stigma? How can such mentality be changed? Discuss.
Menstruation is the natural biological cycle which women experience every month post puberty. In India due to various Customs and rituals, this natural cycle is used by parochialists to justify women’s inferiority as menstruation is seen as nature-inflicted punishment upon them.
It continues to be taboo in the 21st century due to:
Myths and social ostracisation associated with menstruating women in rural India.
Lack of awareness about menstruation and limited sex education in India.
Inadequate focus on women sanitation and health in our public health policies and programes.
Blind belief of masses on traditions, culture, customs, rituals and religion which kills rationality and promote discrimination.
5. Wrong interpretation or exaggeration of religious texts again leads to male dominance.
6. At family level in the name of ‘Values’ and ‘Culture’ these malpractices are forwarded to the next generation.
7. Government shyness in putting a check on such customs and rituals is a kind of silent approval.
This all leads to discrimination in various forms and types:
Women in rural households are often barred from entering the kitchen, forced to wear white clothes, and eat separately during their menstrual cycle.
Impurity associated with a menstruating women sees her barred from entering the temple premises to worship (Sabrimala temple issue).
3. Their decisional autonomy, career aspirations etc. become more a dictated choice.
It further strengthen Patriarch resulting in domestic violence and treatment of women as second class citizens.
To overcome this practice and to bring overall attitudinal change the need is to:
Have an open and frank public health discourse that considers measures during menstruation as central to women health and bodily integrity.
Awareness campaign (recent social media campaigns) may help educate people.
Gender friendly Policies (Italy considering Menstrual leave for women) will help mainstream the issue.
Educational awareness, right from school Gender parity should be taught, students should be sensitized of discrimination issues,
Women role models should be promoted to demolish myths and generate confidence.
Open debates on media on controversial subjects to overcome the societal taboo, naming and shaming those who practice discrimination etc.
Write brief conclusion.
BEST ANSWER: abhishekrwt597
Menstruation is a natural body process that every women experiences post puberty. However, it continues to be taboo in the 21st century as:
1)Myths and social ostracisation associated with menstruating women in rural India.
2)Lack of awareness about menstruation and limited sex education in India.
3) Inadequate focus on women sanitation and health in our public health policies and programs.
This discrimination manifests itself as:
1)Women in rural households are often barred from entering the kitchen, forced to wear white clothes, and eat separately during their menstrual cycle.
2)Impurity associated with a menstruating women sees her barred from entering the temple premises to worship (Sabrimala temple issue).
3)Irresponsible statements by some politicians and public authorities (recent Kerala politician justifying discrimination) leads to further spread of misinformation.
To overcome this requires:
1)AN OPEN AND FRANK PUBLIC HEALTH DISCOURSE that considers measures during menstruation as central to women health and bodily integrity.
2)Awareness campaign (recent social media campaigns) may help educate people.
3)Gender friendly Policies (Italy considering Menstrual leave for women) will help mainstream the issue.
4)Frank admission of discrimination against menstruating women being another form of GENDER DISCRIMINATION and countering it accordingly.
5.The decision to press restaurants to open their toilets for public use is neither a wise nor a sustainable move. Do you agree? Substantiate.
The South Delhi Municipal Corporation recently ordered opening of private restaurants toilet to general public. The decision has been made as part of ‘Swacchh Bharat Mission’ and to address the scarcity of public toilets.
This notification of SDMC to open restaurant toilets to all citizens at an optional levy (by the restaurant owners) of Rs. 5 may well be considered a well-intentioned move on following grounds
Delhi has very few public toilets, and thus the problem of peeing along roads and sidewalks has increased.
The problem of open defecation is also linked to the absence of accessible toilets.
Absence of Gender sensitive washrooms disproportionately affect women, resulting in sanitary and health implications.
Use of basic facilities of the private persons in case of emergency. It advocates they have some responsibility towards the society
This would provide assistance to the poor infra. capacity of ensuring health and hygiene to the general public, and thus help in curbing the related diseases and other problems.
it promote equality and compassion for the “have not ” section and reduce social disparity to some extent.
However, this decision also seems to be the abdication of responsibility by government and putting unnecessary burden of hygiene on private sector. This also raises some serious questions like
1.It seems like intrusion of government of Right to Property. At the same time it is demotivating factor that make investor cynical and susceptible about government. This further impact the administrations credibility.
2.It sets a bad precedent for further public policy formation, where the government takes such decisions unilaterally, without taking into account the economic and structural interests of the stakeholders
3.It violates the right to reservation of admission to private property of the restaurant owners. Places restaurants in unfair dilemma as failure to comply will result in being labelled as discriminatory and elitist.
4.Provision of free common toilets in several malls means similar solutions that can be implemented in public places too.
5.restaurants are just one of many private enterprises having toilets and it is wrong to single them out.
The government should consult all participants affected by such policy implementation, at the policy formulation stage, so as to include the possible concerns of all such people to help make a better policy, which will benefit both the citizens and government initiatives. For example, such toilets can be made on the restaurant’s premises through Public Private Partnerships, which will reduce the economic burden on both sides and also help in achieving the end objective.
BEST ANSWER: abhishekrwt597
The recent notification by SDMC to open restaurant toilets to all citizens at an optional levy(by the restaurant owners) of Rs. 5 may well be considered a well intentioned move.
The arguments that support this are:
1)Delhi has very few public toilets, and thus the problem of peeing along roads and sidewalks has increased.
2)Such a move supports the Govt’s initiative of Swach Bharat Program.
3)The problem of open defecation too is linked to the absence of accessible toilets.
4)Absence of Gender sensitive washrooms disproportionately affect women, resulting in sanitary
and health implications.
But closer exmaination reveals the problems with the same:
1)It violates the right to reservation of admission to pvt property of the restaurant owners.
2)It is a quick fix and amount to ABDICATION OF GOVT RESPONSIBILITY by passing the buck to the private sector.
3)Places restaurants in unfair dilemma as failure to comply will result in being labelled as discriminatory and elitist.
4)Restaurants and hotels often cater to niche clientele and have dressing codes and other sanitary standards, that may become hard to maintain by common usage of washroom.
5)Provision of free common toilets in several malls means similar solutions that can be implemented in public places too.
6) Restaurants have agreed to allow women to access restrooms, but have cited valid security concerns with regards to access to men.
7)restaurants are just one of many pvt enterprises having toilets and its wrong to single them out.
The ultimate solution to ensure cleanliness and personal hygiene is to construct greater no of toilets to eliminate open defecation completely. While participation from the pvt sector may be requested, any forcible compliance is sure to invite charges of coercion.
IASbaba imparts 360-degree IAS preparation solutions with their exhaustive Prelims and Mains preparation courses, supported by the latest UPSC preparation material. Avail our expert help by enrolling with us to keep your knowledge updated and stay ahead of your competition.
Most Trending and Trusted Programmes by UPSC Toppers :