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IASbaba’s Daily Current Affairs 2nd June, 2017

  • June 3, 2017
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IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs Analysis, IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs June 2017, IASbaba's Daily News Analysis, National, UPSC
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IASbaba’s Daily Current Affairs – 2nd June 2017

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HEALTH/SOCIAL ISSUE

TOPIC:  General Studies 2:

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

Making prescription of generic drugs mandatory

Why in news?

In a widely publicized speech on April 17, Prime Minister Narendra Modi indicated that the government may bring in a legal framework under which doctors will have to prescribe generic medicines.

Introduction:

Generic drug- The generics are medicines on which patents have expired. They are sold either as branded products or as unbranded products under their generic names. These drugs are equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use. The generic names are internationally agreed short names called International Non-Proprietary Names. For example, paracetamol is the name for a pain relieving and fever reducing medication and Crocin is one brand name of paracetamol.

The Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002  says: “Every physician should prescribe drugs with generic names legibly (can be read easily) and preferably in capital letters and he/she shall ensure that there is a rational prescription and use of drugs.”

The move proposed by the government will make it illegal for Indian doctors to write out a prescription for the trademark of the drug, forcing them to mention the chemical name instead.

Benefits of making prescription of generic drugs mandatory:

  • Branded medicines are more expensive. The generic drug does not have to undergo a complete clinical trial to be proved equivalent, the bioequivalence test is much cheaper than clinical trials making generic drugs cheaper.
  • While generic medicines are good quality low-cost drugs with equal efficacy as that of branded drugs, in the absence of proper knowledge consumers often tend to go by what doctors and chemists decide for them.
  • The government’s move assumes significance as medicines account for 70-75% of a household’s out of pocket expenditure on health
  • The move will result into affordable access to quality medicines which is a part of free universal access to healthcare services.
  • India being a world leader in generics, the dependency on imports of patent drugs will reduce improving our trade of balance.

Example:
The US in 1984 introduced “the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act”, it transformed the drug market by allowing a generic medicine, that has demonstrated mere bioequivalence with the branded drug, to be dispensed as a substitute for a prescription of the branded drug. Subsequently, this model has been followed in other countries and today most OECD and other developing countries accept the substitution of a branded medicine with a generic equivalent.

Challenges:

  • Questionable quality of generic drugs in India: According to the government’s most recent survey of the quality of drugs in India, 10% of all drugs from ‘government sources’ tested NSQ, or not of standard quality.
  • Many states do not have their own drug-testing labs where authenticity of generic drugs can be checked.
  • Food and Drug Administration offices across the country, tasked with inspecting drug manufacturing facilities and regulating pharmaceutical distribution business, are short staffed.
  • The generics available are only with brand names and are not exactly generics. The prices of these branded generics is not much less than the patent ones defeating the whole intention of making medicines cheap in India. Over 90% of the Indian pharmaceutical industry is of branded generics and only 10% is unbranded generics.
  • Unbranded generic medicines are sold only in public health centres and government-owned pharmacies like the Jan Aushadhi Stores and the reach of Jan Aushadhi Stores is very limited.
  • It will be difficult to write the generic names of medicine contained in FDCs-some of which range from 8-9.
  • The doctors have reservations over the bioavailability of the generic drugs as branded drugs. (Bioavailability is the ability of medicine to reach the active site of action)
  • Innovation can be negatively affected and may pose a challenge to coming up of newer drugs to meet the dynamic and complex health needs of the people today.

What needs to be done?

  • A strong regulatory structure should be put in place to both certify and monitor drug testing and enforce the compliance with GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice).
  • If the government wants to make the prescription of generics compulsory, it needs to put in place a legal mechanism to guarantee that all generics are bioequivalent to the innovator product by making bioequivalence testing compulsory (Bioequivalent generic drugs are therapeutically equal to the innovator drug. Once bioequivalence is established, a generic drug is legally certified to be of the same quality to replace the innovator product and can therefore be interchanged for the innovator product).
  • A patient with a prescription detailing the composition of the medicine could still be dependent on a pharmacist to make the most suitable drug choice. As generic medicines have low margins they are unlikely to be stocked by the retail pharmacist. Therefore the pharmacists should also be brought under its ambit.
  • Facilities which do not comply with GMP should be immediately barred from production.
  • Using technology- Using IT tools to network all 36 drug regulators into one integrated national database. This can then be accessed by every citizen over a smartphone.
    All products should be tagged with a unique RFID, barcode or such similar identification to ensure traceability from manufacture to consumption.
  • Generics should be labelled and sold as such in order to prevent a brand to brand substitution rather than a brand to generic substitution at the retail level.
  • Capping the maximum sale price of the generic taking into account the cost of making the drug and distribution and retail margins as branded generics can be as costly as patent drugs.
  • Rules for punitive fines for non-compliance must be laid down.

Creating a drug regulatory authority(DRA):

The example of RERA created for regulation of real estate sector can be emulated for the pharmaceutical sector as well. There is an urgent need for creating a drug regulatory authority (DRA).

The DRA should serve the dual purpose of making the rules simpler yet stricter, while having the required resources to enforce them effectively. All the above steps outlined can be brought into the mandate of DRA.

Conclusion:

Making prescription of generic drugs mandatory is a noble intention. It will surely make medicines affordable to all and bring us closer to universal healthcare, but the step should be accompanied with guidelines regarding regulation this will give the customers the choice without fear of compromising the quality of their care.

Thus the need of the hour is not a piecemeal legislation mandating the doctors to prescribe generic medicines, but a holistic legislative and regulatory framework that addresses both the quality and affordability aspects.

Connecting the dots:

  • A legislation to make prescription of generic drugs mandatory is under process. While the intention is novel discuss the challenges involved and the regulatory measures which should be brought in along with the legislation.

Also read: Prescribing medicines under generic names. Is it practical?

NATIONAL

TOPIC: General Studies 2

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

e-Pharmacies

Introduction

As part of the digital revolution that is happening across the country pharmacies are facing a threat of e-pharmacies. There are concerns about the concept of e-pharmacies as there is absence of a regulatory regime.

Issue:

  • Pharmacies across the country went on a one-day strike this week to highlight their concerns about the threat from e-pharmacies, and the cost that will be imposed by new regulations on the sale of medicines.
  • The strike, called by the All India Organisation of Chemists and Druggists, had the support of well over eight lakh pharmacies.
  • But perhaps the only thing clear from the AIOCD’s demands is its intention to protect the business interests of traditional brick-and-mortar pharmacies, even if it comes at the cost of the consumer’s interest.
  • Traditional pharmacies have been knocking at the doors of the government for some time now as they face intense competition from e-pharmacies.
  • Their profit margins and market share have faced pressure in recent years from e-pharmacies that often offer medicines at cheaper prices.
  • While this has improved the accessibility of drugs to a wider population, the concern of traditional pharmacists too is easy to understand.
  • The AIOCD has repeatedly accused e-pharmacies of a wide range of malpractices, including selling fake drugs and enabling self-medication.
  • The organisation has been citing these issues to seek a ban on the sale of drugs online.
  • At the same time, pharmacies too have been fighting the government as it tries to tighten the screws on the illegal sale of drugs.

Government actions:

  • In March this year, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare proposed the setting up of an e-portal to track and regulate the sale of drugs across the retail chain.
  • The aim was to prevent the sale of fake and substandard drugs, which are estimated to account for a substantial share of India’s drug market.
  • The AIOCD has opposed the proposal, arguing that smaller pharmacies lack the necessary infrastructure to meet the stringent demands of the Ministry, even as the same rules apply to e-pharmacies.
  • With the strike, pharmacists further upped the ante by temporarily halting the supply of an essential good.
  • This is unfortunate. The Ministry’s proposal to bring both traditional and e-pharmacies under the ambit of the e-portal to track drugs is a welcome move.
  • The risks associated with e-pharmacies, especially when it comes to the dispensation of prescription drugs without the necessary checks, cannot be taken lightly.
  • However, the Ministry’s plan on regulating e-pharmacies is a rather outdated one. It has mandated that e-pharmacies must set up a “licensed brick and mortar facility” as part of their operations to comply with the new regulations.
  • This seems like an indirect way of delegitimising the business model of e-pharmacies, rather than a regulation that aims to improve their transparency and regulation.
  • The huge potential for e-commerce in the retail drugs industry is enough reason to avoid such unreasonably stringent standards.

Concerns about e-pharmacies:

The key concerns surrounding e-pharmacies revolve around some of the following aspects:

  • Licensing regime for e-pharmacies
  • Sale of restricted drugs and medicines
  • Spurious drugs
  • Mechanism to regulate doctor prescriptions
  • Patient privacy

Conclusion:

Presently, most of the online pharmacists operating in India have fairly robust contractual terms and checks and balances to address most of the aspects outlined above. However, there is no regulatory or independent oversight over compliance of these terms. Further, the law mandates pharmacies to adhere to certain standards with regard to storage, packaging, and record-keeping, etc., which may be relatively easier to comply with in case of a brick and mortar store as against  the storage facility or warehouse for the e-pharmacy.

Connecting the dots:

  • Analyse the impact of e-pharmacies in a country like India. Elaborate on the regulations necessary for safety concerns.

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