1. “Education sector shouldn’t become a theater of ideological battles. While it is fine to infuse indigenous sources and perspectives into the current education system, the modern and scientific outlook towards knowledge can’t become subservient to ideology of any kind. Critically analyse.
A good education system should be the one which guides us and helps us to think than guides us what to think. But in our country since independence, education has been the field which has become battle ground for various ideological battles.
· Imposition: of the ruling government’s ideology since 1st government took over till today.
· Conflicts’: It leads to conflict than anything else.
· Constitution: It will against the constitution of the country.
Need for Indigenous sources:
· Indigenous scientific achievements: Aryabhatta, Varaharamihira, CV raman among others.
· Indigenous medicines: Ayurveda, Siddha and achievements of Sushruta, Charaka among others.
· Human values: Indigenous sources teach about compassion, values, culture ethics etc among others.
· Greatness of culture: It shows the greatness of our cultural heritage, traditions and civilizations.
Issus with indigenous education:
· Superstitious: There are many unscientific theories or superstitions which destroys scientific advancements.
· Ancient glory: It glorifies ancient India and one culture among others.
A person who doesn’t know his history or past can never learn and succeed in life. So indigenous knowledge is required but it should not be subservient to modern science. Even our constitution tells us to develop scientific temper so everything should be questioned and accepted only with proper evidence.
2. Educational development has often been the prime mover in bringing about change in public perceptions of the range and reach of human rights. Analyse.
Education has been the prime move in taking rights further. From being it a privilege of few in ancient days to now going beyond just right to live, education has transformed the minds of people and taken the rights very further in its range and reach.
How education has helped from ancient to modern:
Ancient Greece: It was privilege of only higher class and slaves had no rights.
Modern India: Rights have got broadened due to education from Individual to gender to society.
Awareness: It has created awareness about the rights of individuals.
Demands: It has made people demand for more rights from mere few rights.
Fundamental: Now certain rights are fundamental and cannot be taken by law of land also.
Political, economical: The rights are no more just for live but its broadened to political offices, earning and opportunities among others.
Convicts: In jails even for those who have committed grave crimes.
Environment: Not just human rights but other rights linked to human rights are being included like safe environment, hygiene, health etc.
When we look at fundamental rights of Indian constitution itself we can get to know how the rights have increased from independence days to present day. Art 21 itself has undergone so much change. We should take steps to create awareness to people about their rights so that each individual can access what is his right.
3. The need for much greater attention to younger children is especially urgent in the light of mounting scientific evidence that much of their nutritional and health future is sealed by the age of two or three years. Discuss.
Need for greater attention to younger children arises as:
Scientific evidences from across the world have shown how most of the cognitive development of child takes place during its early year only.
A recent World Bank study has highlighted that first 1000 days are the most crucial for physical and cognitive development of a man.
Intellectual and physical development of a child comes under severe stress, if he/she develops nutritional deficiencies at an early age.
Immunity gets build up during early years only.
The economic survey 2015-16 also calls for early intervention as:
It ensures better cognitive and physical development of child during later stages of life.
Interventions in early years are less costly as compared to those done in later years.
Malnourishment (More than sub-saharan levels).
One-third of all stunted children across the world lives in India.
Inadequate post-natal care. Rural women don’t have enough time and awareness given their young age and burden of household work.
Inaccessibility to hospitals leading to high IMR MMR etc.
Steps taken by the government in this direction:
Mothers’ Absolute Affection programme- to promote breast-feeding.
Janani Suraksha Yojana.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
What more needs to be done?
Awareness campaign regarding immunisation, breast-feeding etc.
Strengthening public health systems especially when it comes to pediatrician unit so as to avoid tragedies like the Gorakhpur incident.
Ensuring early marriage is avoided, mothers are healthy and there is adequate gap between two children.
State is under constitutional obligation under the DPSPs to provide early childhood care to infants. The SDGs also recognize access to nutritional food as an aspect basic to sustainable human development. Keeping this in mind its time adequate attention is paid in this direction as today’s child is tomorrow’s labor.
4. Although the private sector can play a constructive role in the provisioning healthcare services, the overall health policy discourse must retain the ‘public good’ character of the health sector.Comment.
According to the WHO report 2016 India has the highest out of pocket expenditure for health sector among the South Asian economies which has undermined public health sector contribution. According to the latest KPMG report, around 80 per cent of all doctors and 75 per cent of dispensaries serve 28 per cent of the country’s population. Recent proposal of NITI Aayog to provide Model concessionaire agreements to supplement private health sector to reform India’s ailing health sector has evoked mixed reactions.
BENEFITS OF PRIVATE SECTOR:
The study conducted by IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics shows that there has been a steady increase in the usage of private healthcare facilities over the last 25 years due to
Less waiting time
More diagnostic facilities
Access to the doctor is much easier( availability)
Better secondary and tertiary care facilities.
Fear of unethical practices- focus on high reimbursement only e.g.: Aarogyasri of AP Government where funds were misappropriated.
Compromises in quality and rationality of services and additional ‘top-up services’.
May result in abdication of responsibility by government
WHY PUBLIC GOOD CHARACTER MUST BE RETAINED:
The broad principles of National Health Policy 2017 are centered on Professionalism, Integrity and Ethics, Equity, Affordability, Universality, Patient Centered & Quality of Care, Accountability and pluralism to achieve significant reduction in out of pocket expenditure due to healthcare costs, reinforce trust in public healthcare system there is a need for overhaul of healthcare system with significant expenditure in infrastructure to nearly 2.5% of GDP as advocated by the Srinath Reddy committee on universal health committee so that public at large is benefitted.
Private sector expertise can be leveraged in collaborating for strategic purchasing, capacity building, skill development programmes, awareness generation, developing sustainable networks for community to strengthen mental health services, and disaster management.
To leverage the best of both sectors the MCA must contain provisions making higher cost channels more affordable by price regulation, subsidizing treatment costs, increasing insurance penetration and including drug reimbursement as a part of insurance to achieve optimum health care.
5. What is Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT)? How does it differ from Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT). Also discuss its suitability in India.
Conditional Cash Transfer
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) schemes provide cash directly to poor households in response to the household/individual fulfilling specific conditions such as minimum attendance of children in schools, and/or attendance at health clinics, participation in immunization and the like. The schemes create incentives for households to adjust their behaviour towards nationally accepted social goals.
The core concept of conditional cash transfers originated in Latin American countries mainly in response to the macroeconomic crisis of the 1990s when the demand from poorer households for social services like education and health was perceived to have declined drastically. Typically, such schemes aim at reducing extreme poverty in the short-run while protecting the formation of human capabilities in the longrun.These programmes represent a shift in government’s approach of focusing on the supply-side to a demand driven approach.
Direct Benefit Transfer
Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) involves the transfer of incentives in monetary terms to the citizens with an aim of public welfare. DBT has gained momentum after the arrival of Jan Dhan Aadhaar Mobile (JAM) trinity wherein the money is directly transferred into the Aadhaar linked bank account and the information is passed using the mobile phone communciation. Unlike CCT, there are no conditions attached in the case of DBT. It is being used for transfering LPG subsidy and fertiliser subsidy among others.
CCT and DBT are means to help the needy section of our society. Both these systems seek to reduce the touch points of administration with common public, and hence seek to end corruption. Also, they aim to achieve the objectives of certain schemes by casting more responsibility on the beneficiaries. Accountability and transparency of administration are greatly enhanced.
Conditional Cash Transfer suitability in India
Social transfers have a rich tradition in India with both the central as well as state governments implementing a range of measures, interestingly, the provisions of some of the national schemes, that is, those relating to maternity benefits and the survival and education of the girl child resemble the provisions in the CCT schemes currently in vogue globally. The main difference is that the orientation in the Indian schemes is more towards the individual rather than the household which is the focus in CCT schemes.
Dhanalakshmi, 2008: Marking a shift to a more integrated scheme that formally adopts the CCT approach, the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India, launched a pilot in March 2008 called Dhanalakshmi or the Conditional Cash Transfer Scheme for Girl Child, with Insurance Cover.
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), 2005
Balika Samridhi Yojana, 1997
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay Scheme, 2004: Initiated by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, and merged into the SSA in April 2007, the scheme is aimed at arresting the dropout rate of girls in secondary education and ensuring their retention up to age of 18. There is provision of a onetime cash transfer of Rs.3,000 deposited in the name of the girl child once the girl child is enrolled in class nine and is not married.
Both the modes of transfer payment are suitable for the country. However to choose between the two, certain factors must be considered. Ease of transfer, fulfillment of conditions, possibility of scrutiny of conditions, educational status of the targeted class, urgency of requirements are some of these.