SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [18th January 2018]- Day 39
1. Examine the effects observed in India’s education sector due to globalization.
- Write about globalization and education sector
- Write effects of globalization on India’s education sector
- Write areas where globalization has failed to make significant impact
Introduction: Globalization means integration of world economies through cross country free flow of information,ideas, technologies, goods, services, finance and last but not the least people. Globalization is a process, which has affected many areas of human life, one of those being education. This means bringing the education system of different economies under common roof which requires unification of teaching curriculum, methodology and up gradation of knowledge and systems to attain the goals of life.
Some of the following evidence are sufficient enough to back the globalization of the sector.
1.Increasing number of students going abroad for study
- Exchange programs among faculties and researchers
- Increased international marketing of academic curriculum
- India is both importer & exporter of higher education services.
The impact of globalisation on India’s education sector has been significant, at all levels of education(primary, secondary and higher). Some of the effects are listed as below:
- It has greatly influenced the career choices of students. An increasing number of students opt for engineering, especially in computer science due to spurt in IT sector jobs.
- More and more number of students move abroad for higher studies, resulting in brain drain.
- The coming of internet has made it possible to attend college counselling online, for parents to get in touch with teachers of their children.
- The course curriculum has been altered, with the introduction of Computer education and emphasis of ‘smart classes’.
- It has become possible to be an auto didactic in a subject due to internet. Students are opting for online courses offered in universities in India and abroad. This has also reduced the gap between the rural and urban areas.
- Indian government has set up more institutions of higher learning – IITs, AIIMS etc.
But there are certain areas where globalisation is yet to have desired impact:
- Scarcity of resource-Threatens the stability needed to build the well performing system.
- Volatility in international market which requires an immediate adjustment to that quickening pulse of international change, and accordingly it brings reform on several fronts simultaneously, which gives rise to a grim plight under the given resource status of higher education.
- The rigid policies of the higher education system, the political pressures, religious and caste based groups.
- India has highest no. of HEIs but they lack global ranking.
- A large no. of Indian students are going abroad for quality HE and incoming foreign students are less.
- Less no. of Indian institutes having campuses abroad.
- Less no. of foreign institutes in India due to restrictive and complex regulations, requirement of approval from multiple agencies to enter partnerships, restrictions on repatriation, lack of operational and academic autonomy.
- Though India is talent hub but low employability of graduates.
Youth is full of talented which needs the light of knowledge for its talent to shine.Though with the advent of globalisation the Indian higher education system has made considerable progress in terms of capacity creation and enrolment especially in the last decade, it lags significantly in terms of “global relevance and competitiveness. Globalisation has both positive and negative impacts on education sector.The best way ahead would be to minimise negative aspects and enrich it with positive local elements leading to glocalisation.
Best Answer: Nazia
2. What do you understand by the term ‘social empowerment’? What can social empowerment achieve? Discuss with the help of suitable examples
- Introduction: Define the term social empowerment.
- Body: Make body into two parts, one for achievements through social empowerment and other examples. Both part can also be clubbed by mentioning examples after each point also.
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
Social empowerment is understood as the process of developing a sense of autonomy and self-confidence, and acting individually and collectively to change social relationships and the institutions and discourses that exclude poor & vulnerable people and keep them in poverty.
In India, these poor and vulnerable include Women, children and Marginalized sections of society like SC , ST and other socially disadvantageous caste groups.
Social Empowerment can achieve the following:
- Justice and peace: Social, economic and political.
- Liberty, poverty and hunger.
- Rights and Equality: Gender, social and political.
- Inclusive economic growth and development.
Directive principles and preamble can be used to holistically cover this part.
- Women empowerment: Gender discrimination is reducing and women are able to perform on par with men in field which were predominantly men dominated. Ex: Indra Nooyi, Chand Kochhar, Arundhati bhattacharya.
- Education: Is under the reach of all sections of society which traditionally were not available to vulnerable groups like Dalits, women and others
- Inclusive growth: The socially disadvantageous groups like Dalits, SC’s and ST’s are able to move up social ladder and aspire to occupy political and economic spaces.
Government schemes which are being implemented for the cause:
- MGNREGA; Right to work
- Nai Roshni, Nai manzil, USTAD: For Muslim population.
- Stand up India: Financial loan for disadvantage groups like women, SC, ST.
- Beti Bachoa Beti padhao.
Note: 8-10 points are enough in exam. Explanation of one or two lines is mandatory for each point. You can add some more relevant points.
Inclusive development can also help in India’s GDP growth, many reports have already suggested if India’s women equal men in workforce that alone will contribute 700 billion dollars to economy then imagine what the other socially disadvantage groups can bring in. It is high time government realize this hidden potential and channelize them for growth and development of country.
Connecting the dots:
- Socially and Educational backward groups in India.
- Women empowerment.
Best Answer: Jyoti singh
3. Write a note on evolution of communalism in the Indian Society?
- Introduction: Give an insight about how communalism evolved in India and what is communalism.
- Body: U need to point out the origin of communalism, how it started, how it played its role in division and present situation.
- Conclusion: 2-3 lines about their effects in recent times.
The British were horrified during the Revolt of 1857, to see various social communities fighting side by side and under each other’s command against them. Roots of present communal tensions can be traced from the revolt.
Communalism refers to a social setup or organization where individuals and groups show their allegiance towards their own commune which can be based on caste, religion or ethnicity.
Body (Points to be included)
Role of British
- Divide and Rule
- Constitutional developments in various Acts (Eg. Communal Electorates 1909 Act)
- Communal Award
- Cripps Mission – autonomy of Muslim majority provinces
- Cabinet Mission Plan – Possibility of separate constituent assembly for Muslim majority provinces
Rise of Muslim Consciousness
- Sir Syed Ahmad Khan appealed educated Muslims to stay away from Congress (Side effect of British policies)
- Muslim League Formation – Young Muslim nationalists
- Demand for Separate Electorate
- Idea of Separate Muslim State – Rahmat Ali & Iqbal
- Pakistan Resolution
Rise of Hindu Consciousness
- Rise of militant nationalism
- Hindu nationalism – side effects of militant nationalism
- Reaction to Muslim Consciousness – RSS and Hindu Mahasabha
- Lucknow Pact (1916)
- Khilafat and Non-Cooperation
- Nehru Report gave legitimacy to politics of the League – separate communities to separate interests
- Gandhi-Jinnah talk 1944 (Right of self-determination majority of Muslim provinces)
- Communal Riot post partition
- Babri Masjid Action Committee & Ayodhya Ram temple in Ayodhya
- Gujarat riots of 2002
Note: 8-10 points are required in answer. Choose accordingly but give proper weightage to each part. A line or two explanations is must.
Communalism started by British to rule over us had torn the country apart. Post-Independence various political and social leaders have tried to build communal harmony and they have been partially successful as India never witnessed any communal violence when compared to other countries except few minor incidents.
Best Answer: No Best answer.
Q.4) REGIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ASSOCIATED DEMANDS CAN NEVER BE PUT TO REST IN A VIBRANT AND DIVERSE DEMOCRACY LIKE INDIA. DO YOU AGREE? SUBSTANTIATE.
The people in India differ greatly from one another in respect of language and social habits. India is divided among states mainly on the basis of language. The Government of India, shortly after independence began reforming the provinces on the linguistic basis. It was expected that this would make each region or state a compact homogeneous whole, facilitate administration, and help its rapid progress, thus benefiting the country as a whole.
But the linguistic division of the country has already given rise to feelings that threaten the very unity of the motherland. Though the States of India are united under a common banner and common central government, we think of ourselves as natives of Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha, etc. first and Indian afterwards, this is because of the vibrant diverse democracy in which we are living.
Regional Consciousness is awareness or knowledge where people identify themselves with a geographical area, either on the basis of language or same ethnicity. Regional Consciousness leads to regionalism where regionalism is the personification of a group or community with land.
Some of the demands for a separate state and separate identity in India:
- Harit Pradesh, Purvanchal, Awadh, Bundelkhand
- Vidarbha, Konkan, Marathwada, Khandesh
- Kutch, Saurashtra and Bhilistan
- Separate flag for Karnataka
- Protest for jalikattu, and other cultural and traditional rights
In an Indian vibrant democracy has a major challenge of regional disparities, although in terms of economic growth there are statistical presentations with regard to developmental indicators. However, looking at the social development aspects at a grass root level, there is still a long way to go.
- If the regional disparities are not properly understood and addressed, regional disintegration on sociopolitical fronts could emerge as the future threat.
- The sustainability of the growth rate and the propulsion of the country to achieve its targets are under question unless India develops as an integrated whole of regional competency.
- In terms of their productive potential and the industrial support, the actualization or their potential holds the key to increasing the compositeness of the nation as a whole. Sub-national regions are the locus of important determination of competitiveness for the nation
How this menace of regional disparity and regional consciousness could be redressed there are certain strategic that need to be adhered.
- To minimize backwash effect.
- To ensure rapid economic development.
- Optimum Conservation and development of resources.
- To maintain political stability that paves the way for increased regional disparities.
- Apart from economic indexes social aspects need to be tackled by overcoming the social evils.
- Low income, unemployment, poor output levels do strengthen the regional disparity so there should be mechanism to promote and secure large employment opportunities.
However if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with , balances, such as the separation of the powers, then the branch of the system of the rule could accumulate power and become harmful to the democracy itself.
Best Answer: maximus
5. Instead of uniting our society, secularism in India it has fomented fragmentation and alienation among our diverse religious communities. Critically Comment.
- Introduction- One can define Indian secularism. How is it different?
- How secularism has fomented fragmentation and alienation.
- Way forward
Secularism in India means equal treatment of all religions by the state. With the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution of India enacted in 1976, the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a secular nation. Secularism is thus a basic principle as per Supreme Court directive. Unlike western notion of secularism, here in India the state is not separated from religion rather the government is obliged to take steps so that all religions are treated equally.
Secularism is one of the fundamental principle meant for uniting the society, given huge religious cultural diversity. However, inspite of uniting it has led to animosity between different religious groups in following ways:
- Vote bank politics– propounding the religious beliefs of one community over other. Ban on caw slaughter has been envisaged under DPSP, but the way it has been implemented, not keeping in mind the livelihood of many, especially the Muslims has resulted into violence. Eg- The Mohammad Akhlaq incident- he was beaten to death by a mob.
- Appeasement policy of the government- Petty matters converts into riots as in Muzaffarpur because of administrative negligence.
- The Uniform civil code debate rather than being an informed one, with an objective of improving lives of Muslim women, the debate took a turn which made it seem as majoritarianism dominating over minorities.
- The social gap between the OBCs, SCs and STs on one hand and the communities like Jat(Haryana), Patidars(Gujarat) has widened further because of the reservation policy.
- Some say it is time we have a strict separation between religion and state. But given the fact that minorities especially SCs and STs remain alienated in multiple aspects, the state needs to behave responsibly.
- Stoking of religious beliefs for the benefit of one’s position/party should be dealt with strictly.
- Education along with greater awareness about the importance of secularism as a principle will help people not fall victim and be part of ill-founded religious debates.
- Developing an egalitarian society. The demand for reservation from so called general communities can be dealt with providing jobs both in public and private life apart from agriculture for the youth.
From above analysis it can be concluded that it is not the concept of secularism per se but the misconception around it which has resulted into polarization of Indian society hurting the growth and development of those alienated. It is time that Indian secularism, the principle which is appreciated worldwide, is given due respect.
Best answer: Divya Jain