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SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [2nd February 2018]- Day 50

  • IASbaba
  • February 6, 2018
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TLP-UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [2nd February 2018]- Day 50

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Q.1) What are the objectives of India’s IPR Policy? Does it ensure a balance between promoting innovation and protecting the interests of the underprivileged? Critically examine.

Body:

The National IPR Policy is a vision document that aims to create and exploit synergies between all forms of intellectual property (IP), concerned statutes and agencies. It sets in place an institutional mechanism for implementation, monitoring and review. It aims to incorporate and adapt global best practices to the Indian scenario.

Objectives:

The Policy lays down the following seven objectives:

  • IPR Awareness: Outreach and Promotion – To create public awareness about the economic, social and cultural benefits of IPRs among all sections of society.
  • Generation of IPRs: To stimulate the generation of IPRs.
  • Legal and Legislative Framework: To have strong and effective IPR laws, which balance the interests of rights owners with larger public interest.
  • Administration and Management: To modernize and strengthen service-oriented IPR administration.
  • Commercialization of IPRs: Get value for IPRs through commercialization.
  • Enforcement and Adjudication: To strengthen the enforcement and adjudicatory mechanisms for combating IPR infringements.
  • Human Capital Development: To strengthen and expand human resources, institutions and capacities for teaching, training, research and skill building in IPRs.

IPR policy ensuring a balance between innovation and public interest:

All the developed countries, including the US, have raised concerns over India issuing the CL and also section 3(d).

  • As per the WTO norms, a CL can be invoked by a government allowing a company to produce a patented product without the consent of the patent owner in public interest.
  • Under the Indian Patents Act, a CL can be issued for a drug if the medicine is deemed unaffordable, among other conditions, and the government grants permission to qualified generic drug makers to manufacture it.
  • India will continue to utilise the legislative space and flexibilities available in international treaties and the TRIPS Agreement.
  • These flexibilities include the sovereign right of countries to use provisions such as Section 3(d) and CLs for ensuring the availability of essential and life-saving drugs at affordable prices.
  • The policy left the country’s patent laws intact and specifically did not open up Section 3(d) of the Patents Act, which sets the standard for what is considered an invention in India, for reinterpretation.
  • Policy is to create an effective loan guarantee scheme to encourage start-ups.
  • The Policy also seeks to facilitate domestic IPR filings, for the entire value chain from IPR generation to commercialization. It aims to promote research and development through tax benefits.
  • The IPR policy favoured the government considering financial support for a limited period on sale and export of products based on IPRs generated from public-funded research.
  • Special thrust on awareness generation and effective enforcement of IPRs, besides encouragement of IP commercialisation through various incentives.

Conclusion:

The Policy which is in compliance with WTO’s agreement on TRIPS, aims to sustain entrepreneurship and boost Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ambitious scheme ‘Make in India.’

Best Answer:  Akash

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2. Identify at least three sectors where indigenisation of technology is a strategic necessity. Have efforts been made in this direction? Examine.

Approach:

  • Introduction
  • Three sectors which requires indigenisation and efforts made for each
  • Conclusion

Introduction:

Indigenisation denotes to substituting an imported item with one that is manufactured within the country. For a fast-growing economy like India, self-reliance is not only important but a necessity in strategic terms.

Three sectors where indigenisation of technology is a strategic necessity are:

Energy Sector:

More than 70% of India’s energy demands are based on imports. This not only results into huge expenditure but also makes us dependent for our energy needs. Given the geopolitical conflicts, turbulence in Middle East, a secured supply is not ensured.
In this light being energy supply would help boost economy.
Efforts made in this direction:

  • Thrust for renewable energy- With the ambitious plan of having 175 gigawatts of operational renewable energy capacity by March 2022, India is moving in right direction.
  • Further the new National Mineral Energy Policy facilitates exploration of reserves.
  • The government is also planning to build its own strategic petroleum reserves.

Defence Sector:

Self-reliance in defence technology and production is a pre-requisite for any nation that aspires to become a great power and have an enviable standing in the comity of nations.

Currently our defence acquisitions have more than 2/3rd of import content, which is alarming.

Efforts made in this direction:

  • Defence Procurement Procedure, 2016 has been launched to simplify defence procurement procedure to give a boost to “Make in India”.
    A new category of procurement ‘Buy {Indian-IDDM (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)}’ has been introduced in Defence Procurement Procedure-2016 and the same has been accorded top most priority for procurement of capital equipment.

ICT:

in India, very few electronic components are manufactured and therefore, all the ICs and other electronic components are imported from foreign country.
Further with ongoing digitisation, its scale, efforts being made towards e-governance etc the issue of cyber security has become much more challenging.

Efforts made in this direction:

The Cyber Security Policy suggests building a robust cuyber security architecture. Further India is making strides in technological field with having ts own GPS-aided system(GAGAN), NAVIC etc.

Conclusion:

The above three sectors requires indigenisation. The efforts being made are in right direction. The implementation part should thus be focused upon.

Best answer: Lone Wolf

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3. What is ‘digital signature’? What are its applications in governance? Discuss.

  • Introduction: Define digital signature in about two-three lines.
  • Body: In body, the answer should contain applications of digital signature in governance.
  • Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.

Introduction

Digital signature is digital code that is generated and authenticated by public key encryption which can be attached to any electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.

Body

Digital signature has significant application in governance due to its security and authenticity features:

  • Income tax: filings, Notices and certificates.
  • Municipalities: Birth and Death certificate.
  • Public sector companies: Shares, bonds, debentures, appointment orders.
  • Procurement: Auctions, tendering etc.
  • Banks and RBI: Account statements, proofs, license.
  • Panchayat level: Records keeping, certificates.
  • District level: Certificates like caste certificate, bill approvals, warrants, pensions etc.
  • Secretariats: orders, approvals etc.
  • Service providers: Railways, Power distribution companies etc.

Note: Explanation is needed for all points. Only important keywords which should be used in explanation is given.  

Conclusion

Digital Certificate has immensely helped government servants to focus on their core functions by freeing them up in routine operations like revenue collection, issuing of certificate etc. which therefore helps in enhancing overall productivity of administrative machinery.

Connecting the dots:

  • NeGP.
  • Digital India.

Best Answer: Lone wolf.

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4. What are ‘carbon nanotubes’? Examine its applications in the field of medicine.

  • Introduction: Define what carbon nanotubes are.
  • Body: In body, the answer should include applications of Nanotubes in field of medicine and also concerns about its safety.
  • Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.

Introduction

Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. They have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.

Body

Application of Carbon Nanotubes in field of Medicine:

  1. Therapeutics:
  • Cancer therapy: Drug delivery, immunotherapy etc.
  • Infection therapy.
  • Gene therapy.
  • Tissue generation.
  • Neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Anti-Oxidants.
  1. Diagnosis and Analysis:
  • Biosensor vehicles.
  • Extraction of drugs and chemicals.

Issues with carbon nanotubes:

  • Toxicity: Raw materials are potentially dangerous to living system.

Note: Explanation is needed for all points.

Conclusion

The invention of nanotube technology has opened alternative to conventional drug delivery methods. The results are exceptional but despite surprising results there are many opportunities that is to be explored along with risks that needs to be addressed.

Connecting the dots:

  • Vantablack.

Best Answer: Meghatandon96@gmail.com

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Q5. Discuss the applications of robotics and automation in agriculture?

Approach

  • It is direct 1-part question
  • In such questions, quote real-world examples of advanced technologies already in use to fetch better marks

Body

Robotics and automation is revolutionizing every industry it touches and agriculture is no different. It can play a huge role in optimizing the various activities in the agriculture sector. Some of these are:

Crop Seeding

The traditional method for sowing seeds is to scatter them using a “broadcast spreader” attached to a tractor. It is not a very efficient method of planting as it can waste seeds.

Autonomous precision seeding combines robotics with geomapping. A map is generated which shows the soil properties (quality, density, etc) at every point in the field. The tractor, with robotic seeding attachment, then places the seeds at precise locations and depths so that each has the best chance of growing.

Crop Monitoring and Analysis

New sensor and geomapping technologies are allowing farmers to get a much higher level of data about their crops than they have in the past. Ground robots and drones provide a way to collect this data autonomously. Drone offer farmers the capability view the collected crop data in real time.  Ground based robots provide even more detailed monitoring as they are able to get closer to the crops.

Fertilizing and Irrigation

Irrigating and fertilizing crops has traditionally used a lot of water is quite inefficient. Robot-Assisted Precision Irrigation can reduce wasted water by targeting specific plants. Robots can navigate between rows of crop and pour water directly at the base of each plant. Robots also have an advantage as they are able to access areas where other machines cannot.

Crop Weeding and Spraying

Spraying pesticides and weed killers onto fields is not only wasteful, it can severely harm the environment. Robots provide a much more efficient method.

The concept of micro-spraying could significantly reduce the amount of herbicide used in crop growing. Micro-spraying robots use computer vision technology to detect weeds and then spray a targeted drop of herbicide onto them

Autonomous Tractors

In large fields such as for corporate farming, manually using tractors becomes non-viable. With advancement in robotics, autonomous tractors can carry out a variety of tasks such as ploughing, sowing, watering, weeding etc.

Automation and robotics can also play a leading role in allied sectors such as dairy farming, poultry etc. Furthermore, logistics and transportation too can be radically transformed using robotics, GPS-enabled monitoring etc. which can reduce food wastage during storage and transportation.

Best Answer: None  

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