Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 19th May to 25th May – 2019
Ongole: Indigenous cattle breed
20th May: World Metrology Day; the Metre Convention was signed by representatives of seventeen nations on May 20, 1875. The Convention set the framework for global collaboration in the science of measurement and in its industrial, commercial and societal applications.
22nd May: International Day of Biological Diversity
Vayoshreshtha Samman: National Awards for Senior Citizens
‘Not all animals migrate by choice’ campaign launched
Aim: To raise awareness on illegal wildlife trade
By: Campaign launched by Wildlife Crime Control Bureau of India and UN Environment aimed at airports across India.
Featured Animals: Tiger, Pangolin, Star Tortoise and Tokay Gecko – are highly endangered due to illegal trading in International markets
- Tiger is traded for its skin, bones and body parts
- Pangolin, the most illegally traded wild mammal on the planet is trafficked for its meat and its scales are used in traditional medicines
- Star Tortoise for meat and pet trade
- Tokay Gecko in traditional medicine mostly into South East Asia and particularly Chinese Markets.
Why: In India, illegal trade in wildlife has seen a sharp rise in recent years.
Illegal wildlife trade is driving species to the brink of extinction. A thriving industry with organized wildlife crime chains spreading across the world, in India, illegal trade in wildlife has seen a sharp rise. The campaign ‘Not all animals migrate by choice’ aims at creating awareness and garnering public support for the protection and conservation of wildlife, prevention of smuggling and reduction in demand for wildlife products. The campaign also complements worldwide action on illegal trade in wildlife through UN Environment’s global campaign, Wild for Life.
There is an urgent need for awareness, action and stringent enforcement of laws to put an end to all illegal wildlife trade threatening biodiversity and conservation in the wild. This campaign is an important step forward in creating much-needed awareness on wildlife trafficking which threatens the very survival of these species.
About Wildlife Crime Control Bureau
It is a statutory multi-disciplinary body established by the Government of India under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, to combat organized wildlife crime in the country.
- Under Section 38 (Z) of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, it is mandated to collect and collate intelligence related to organized wildlife crime activities and to disseminate the same to State and other enforcement agencies for immediate action so as to apprehend the criminals
- To establish a centralized wildlife crime data bank; co-ordinate actions by various agencies in connection with the enforcement of the provisions of the Act
- Assist foreign authorities and international organization concerned to facilitate co-ordination and universal action for wildlife crime control
- Capacity building of the wildlife crime enforcement agencies for scientific and professional investigation into wildlife crimes and assist State Governments to ensure success in prosecutions related to wildlife crimes
- Advise the Government of India on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international ramifications, relevant policy and laws. It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora & fauna as per the provisions of Wild Life Protection Act, CITES and EXIM Policy governing such an item.
Redefined units of measurement of kilogram, Kelvin, mole and ampere
This decision has now enabled scientists and researchers to base the SI units entirely on fundamental properties of nature, which will ensure their ongoing refinement and improvement for years to come. The fundamental constants are invariants of time and space and successfully replaced the artifact based units, and aptly opened up the new era for quantum world by linking all seven base units to fundamental constants/quantum standards.
Kilogram: SI unit of weight
Kelvin: SI unit of temperature
Mole: SI unit of amount of substance
Ampere: SI unit of current
Pulses in India
Besides serving as an important source of protein for a large portion of the global population, pulses contribute to healthy soils and climate change mitigation through their nitrogen-fixing properties.
Area, Production and Productivity
- India is the largest producer (25% of global production), consumer (27% of world consumption) and importer (14%) of pulses in the world.
- Pulses account for around 20 per cent of the area under food grains and contribute around 7-10 per cent of the total food grains production in the country.
- Though pulses are grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons, Rabi pulses contribute more than 60 per cent of the total production.
Availability vis-à-vis nutritional and sustainability aspects
- Per capita net availability of pulses in India, however, has reduced from 51.1 gm/day (1971) to 41.9 gm/day (2013) as against WHO recommendation of 80gm/day. This raises question about the nutritional aspect as pulses are considered to be ‘poor man’s protein’.
- It is estimated that pulses contain 20-25 per cent of protein by weight and have twice the protein available in wheat and thrice that is present in rice.
- In addition to its nutritional advantage, pulses have low carbon and water footprints which make them an integral part of the sustainable farming system. As per estimates, water footprints for producing one kilogram of meat are five times higher than that of pulses. Further, one kilogram of legume emits 0.5 kilogram in CO 2 equivalent whereas one kilogram of meat produce 9.5 kilogram in CO 2 equivalent.
Competition Commission of India (CCI)
Competition is the best means of ensuring that the ‘Common Man’ or ‘Aam Aadmi’ has access to the broadest range of goods and services at the most competitive prices. With increased competition, producers will have maximum incentive to innovate and specialize. This would result in reduced costs and wider choice to consumers. A fair competition in market is essential to achieve this objective. Our goal is to create and sustain fair competition in the economy that will provide a ‘level playing field’ to the producers and make the markets work for the welfare of the consumers.
The Competition Act: The Competition Act, 2002, as amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007, follows the philosophy of modern competition laws. The Act prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises and regulates combinations (acquisition, acquiring of control and M&A), which causes or likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.
Competition Commission of India
- The objectives of the Act are sought to be achieved through the Competition Commission of India, which has been established by the Central Government with effect from 14th October 2003. CCI consists of a Chairperson and 6 Members appointed by the Central Government.
- It is the duty of the Commission to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition, promote and sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India.
- The Commission is also required to give opinion on competition issues on a reference received from a statutory authority established under any law and to undertake competition advocacy, create public awareness and impart training on competition issues.
PSLV-C46 successfully launches RISAT-2B
India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C46) successfully launched the RISAT-2B satellite from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.
RISAT-2B is a radar imaging earth observation satellite weighing about 615 kg. The satellite is intended to provide services in the field of Agriculture, Forestry and Disaster Management.
Successful Firing of BrahMos Air Launched Missile from Su-30 MKI Aircraft
- The air launched BrahMos missile is a 2.5 ton supersonic air to surface cruise missile with ranges of close to 300 km, designed and developed by BAPL.
- The IAF became the first Air Force in the world to have successfully fired an air launched 2.8 Mach surface attack missile of this category on a sea target on 22 Nov 17.
- It was the second such live launch of the weapon.
- The integration of the weapon on the aircraft was a very complex process involving mechanical, electrical and software modifications on aircraft. The IAF has been involved in the activity from its inception.
The BrahMos missile provides Indian Air Force a much desired capability to strike from large stand-off ranges on any target at sea or on land with pinpoint accuracy by day or night and in all weather conditions. The capability of the missile coupled with the superlative performance of the Su-30MKI aircraft gives the IAF the desired strategic reach.
Central government bans Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh or Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen India or Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Hindustan and all its manifestations
The notification states that the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh and its formations like Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen India or Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Hindustan and their manifestations have committed acts of terrorism, promoted acts of terrorism and have been engaged in radicalisation and recruitment of youth(s) for terrorist activities in India.