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Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 15th July to 20th July – 2019

  • IASbaba
  • July 22, 2019
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Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 15th  to 20th July – 2019

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Lok Sabha passes The Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill, 2019

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

The Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill, 2019, inter alia, provides

  • That a person who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court is also made eligible to be appointed as Chairperson of the Commission in addition to the person who has been the Chief Justice of India;
  • To increase the Members of the Commission from two to three of which, one shall be a woman;
  • To include Chairperson of the National Commission for Backward Classes, Chairperson of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights and the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities as deemed Members of the Commission;
  • To reduce the term of the Chairperson and Members of the Commission and the State Commissions from five to three years and shall be eligible for re-appointment;
  • To provide that a person who has been a Judge of a High Court is also made eligible to be appointed as Chairperson of the State Commission in addition to the person who has been the Chief Justice of the High Court; and,
  • To confer upon State Commissions, the functions relating to human rights being discharged by the Union territories, other than the Union territory of Delhi, which will be dealt with by the Commission

The Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019 introduced in Lok Sabha

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

The Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019 that amends the Right to Information Act, 2005 was introduced in Lok Sabha today.

What does the RTI Act do?  

Under the RTI Act, 2005, Public Authorities are required to make disclosures on various aspects of their structure and functioning.  This includes: (i) disclosure on their organisation, functions, and structure, (ii) powers and duties of its officers and employees, and (iii) financial information.  The intent of such suo moto disclosures is that the public should need minimum recourse through the Act to obtain such information.  If such information is not made available, citizens have the right to request for it from the Authorities.  This may include information in the form of documents, files, or electronic records under the control of the Public Authority.  The intent behind the enactment of the Act is to promote transparency and accountability in the working of Public Authorities.  

Who is included in the ambit of ‘Public Authorities’?

‘Public Authorities’ include bodies of self-government established under the Constitution, or under any law or government notification.  For instance, these include Ministries, public sector undertakings, and regulators.  It also includes any entities owned, controlled or substantially financed and non-government organizations substantially financed directly or indirectly by funds provided by the government. 

How is the right to information enforced under the Act?

The Act has established a three tier structure for enforcing the right to information guaranteed under the Act.

Public Authorities designate some of their officers as Public Information Officers.  The first request for information goes to Central/State Assistant Public Information Officer and Central/State Public Information Officer, designated by the Public Authorities. These Officers are required to provide information to an RTI applicant within 30 days of the request.  Appeals from their decisions go to an Appellate Authority.  Appeals against the order of the Appellate Authority go to the State Information Commission or the Central Information Commission.  These Information Commissions consists of a Chief Information Commissioner, and up to 10 Information Commissioners.  

What does the Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019 propose?

The Bill changes the terms and conditions of service of the CIC and Information Commissioners at the centre and in states

Comparison of the provisions of the Right to Information Act, 2005 and the Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019

Provision RTI Act, 2005 RTI (Amendment) Bill, 2019
Term The Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and Information Commissioners (ICs) (at the central and state level) will hold office for a term of five years.  The Bill removes this provision and states that the central government will notify the term of office for the CIC and the ICs.
Quantum of Salary The salary of the CIC and ICs (at the central level) will be equivalent to the salary paid to the Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners, respectively. 

Similarly, the salary of the CIC and ICs (at the state level) will be equivalent to the salary paid to the Election Commissioners and the Chief Secretary to the state government, respectively. 

 The Bill removes these provisions and states that the salaries, allowances, and other terms and conditions of service of the central and state CIC and ICs will be determined by the central government.

 

Deductions in Salary The Act states that at the time of the appointment of the CIC and ICs (at the central and state level), if they are receiving pension or any other retirement benefits for previous government service, their salaries will be reduced by an amount equal to the pension. 

Previous government service includes service under: (i) the central government, (ii) state government, (iii) corporation established under a central or state law, and (iv) company owned or controlled by the central or state government.

The Bill removes these provisions.

 

Sources: Right to Information Act, 2005; Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019; PRS.


Policy for Digital Economy

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

The Government has recently introduced National Policy on Electronics (NPE) and National Policy on Software Products (NPSP) in 2019 for the growing digital economy. 

A draft National e-Commerce policy has been prepared and placed for comments in public domain. The draft National e-Commerce policy has been prepared to create a facilitative regulatory environment for growth of e-commerce sector in India and to leverage access to data such that data of Indians can be used for the growth of digital economy in India. The policy establishes strategies which aim to –

  • Empower domestic entrepreneurs and encourage Make in India
  • Safeguard interests of the consumers
  • Ensure creation of jobs in the digital sphere in the times to come
  • Promote domestic research and development in digital innovation
  • Prevent misuse of data while maintaining the spirit of existing regulations

The Government had constituted a committee of expert on data protection, chaired by Justice (Retd) B.N. Srikrishna, Supreme Court of India, to study various issues relating to data protection and come out with the Data Protection Bill. 

  • The Srikrishna committee has brought out a draft Personal Data Protection Bill (PDPB). 
  • The framework seeks to put in place a culture of privacy by design and promoting concepts such as consent framework, purpose limitation, storage limitation, and data minimization among various other privacy-oriented concepts. 
  • Wide-ranging consultations have been conducted on the recommendations of the committee with a view to finalizing the draft legislation.

Launch of the Broadband Readiness Index for Indian States and Union Territories (2019-2022)

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

By: The Department of Telecom (DoT) and the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)

Why: The National Digital Communication Policy (NDCP) 2018 acknowledged the need for building a robust digital communications infrastructure leveraging existing assets of the broadcasting and power sectors including collaborative models involving state, local bodies and the private sector. Accordingly, the policy recommended that a BRI for States and UTs be developed to attract investments and address Right of Way(RoW) challenges across India.

  • This index will appraise the condition of the underlying digital infrastructure and related factors at the State/UT level. Such an exercise will provide useful insights into strategic choices made by States for investment allocations in ICT programmes. 
  • In the spirit of competitive federalism, the index will encourage states to cross learn and jointly participate in achieving the overall objective of digital inclusion and development in India. 
  • The framework will not only evaluate a state’s relative development but will also allow for better understanding of a state’s strengths and weaknesses that can feed into evidence-based policy making.

Digitisation of AYUSH

(Topic: 

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

Ministry of AYUSH has conceptualized AYUSH GRID Project for digitising AYUSH healthcare delivery at all levels.

  • The AYUSH Grid Project is the proposed IT backbone for the entire AYUSH sector covering the healthcare systems Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Rigpa and Homoeopathy. AYUSH Grid is envisaged as an omnibus digital eco- system that would lead to all round development of the AYUSH sector in fields of healthcare delivery at all levels, research, education, schemes and various health programs.
  • To develop a network of People, Knowledge and Technology for radical, sustainable and wholesome transformation of AYUSH sector, and play a pivotal role in taking care of holistic health care needs (i.e. curative, preventive and promotive health) and socio- economic wellbeing of Indian citizens and further extending the benefits to entire world population.  
  • To create an organic and dynamic information and communication technology (ICT) powered network interconnecting all streams of AYUSH in their key functional areas viz. health care delivery, capacity building, research & development, AYUSH drug regulation and education. This will be beneficial for all stakeholders of AYUSH and also helpful for effective governance. Strategies for development will be in sync with the national and international policies and health care needs.

The main components of AYUSH GRID Project are as under:

  • Health Services
  • Education
  • Research
  • Central Sector and Centrally Sponsored Schemes
  • Training
  • Citizen Centric Services
  • Drug Licencing Portal
  • Media Outreach

NOTE: Health is a state subject

Cabinet approves Inter-Institutional Agreement between India and USA for cooperation in the field of medicine

The objective of the Agreement is to contribute towards the development of research and education of both the Institutions through academic collaboration. The general areas of common interest where collaboration and exchange of knowledge are intended for both include:

  • Exchange of faculty members and students for training, study and research especially in the areas on 3D Bioprinting;
  • Execution of joint research projects; and
  • Exchange of information and academic publications

Pradhan Mantri Urja Ganga Project

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

The Government has taken various policy initiatives to increase the domestic production of crude oil and natural gas which include: –

  • Policy for Relaxations, Extensions and Clarifications under Production Sharing Contract (PSC) regime for early monetization of hydrocarbon discoveries;
  • New Domestic Natural Gas Pricing Guidelines-2014;
  • Marketing including pricing freedom on natural gas production under PSC regime from difficult areas such as High Pressure-High Temperature (HP-HT) reservoirs and deep water and ultra-deep water areas;
  • Discovered Small Field Policy;
  • Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy;
  • Policy for Extension of Production Sharing Contracts;
  • Policy for early monetization of Coal Bed Methane;
  • Setting up of National Data Repository;
  • National Seismic Programme for appraisal of Unappraised areas in Sedimentary Basins;
  • Re-assessment of Hydrocarbon Resources;
  • Policy framework to streamline the working of Production Sharing Contracts in Pre-NELP and NELP Blocks;
  • Policy to Promote and Incentivize Enhanced Recovery Methods for Oil and Gas;
  • Policy framework for exploration and exploitation of Unconventional Hydrocarbons under existing Production Sharing Contracts, Coal Bed Methane contracts and Nomination fields.

Encouraging Research for Smaller Companies in Defence Projects

(Topic: 

General Studies 2:

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

General Studies 3:

  • Mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment
  • Indigenization of technology and developing new technology)

Government has taken several steps towards simplifying the rules and promotion of research and innovation in respect of MSMEs in Defence Industry.

Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) has been revised in 2016 wherein specific provisions have been introduced for stimulating growth of the domestic defence industry with regard to MSMEs.

  • A new category of procurement ‘Buy {Indian-IDDM (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)}’ has been introduced in DPP-2016 to promote indigenous design and development of defence equipment. It has been accorded top most priority for procurement of capital equipment. Besides this, preference has been accorded to ‘Buy (Indian)’, ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ & ‘Make’ categories of capital acquisition over ‘Buy (Global)’ & ‘Buy & Make (Global)’ categories.
  • The ‘Make’ Procedure has been simplified with provisions for funding of 90% of development cost by the Government to Indian industry and reserving projects not exceeding development cost of Rs.10 Crore (Government funded) and Rs.3 Crore (Industry funded) for MSMEs.
  • Separate procedure for ‘Make-II’ sub-category has been notified wherein projects will involve prototype development of equipment/system/platform or their upgrades or their sub-systems/sub-assembly/assemblies/components primarily for import substitution/innovation solutions, for which no Government funding will be provided for prototype development purposes.
  • In order to expand the manufacturing infrastructure, Government has decided to establish two defence industrial corridors, one each in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, to serve as an engine of growth of defence industrial base in the country.
  • The Defence Products List for the purpose of issuing Industrial Licenses (ILs) under IDR Act has been revised and most of the components, parts,sub-systems, testing equipment and production equipment have been removed from the list, so as to reduce the entry barriers for the industry, particularly small & medium segment. The initial validity of the Industrial Licence granted under the IDR Act has been increased from 03 years to 15 years with a provision to further extend it by 03 years on a case-to-case basis.The process for export clearance has been streamlined and made transparent & online.

An innovation ecosystem for Defence titled Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) has been launched which is aimed at creation of an ecosystem to foster innovation and technology development in Defence and Aerospace by engaging Industries including MSMEs, Start-ups, Individual Innovators, R&D Institutes and Academia and provide them grants/funding and other support to carry out R&D which has potential for future adoption for Indian defence and aerospace needs. 

Under iDEX, innovative solutions have been successfully identified for 14 problem areas pertaining to national defence requirements. More than 600 startups have been engaged in the process and 44 different solutions have been identified for the problem statements by the innovators.

  • Government has set up the Technology Development Fund (TDF) to encourage participation of public/private industries especially MSMEs, through provision of grants, so as to create an eco-system for enhancing cutting edge technology capability for defence applications.
  • The Ministry has instituted a new framework titled ‘Mission Raksha Gyan Shakti’ which aims to provide boost to the IPR culture in indigenous defence industry.

Prelims oriented News:

Limboo and Tamang communities: In Sikkim

Dibang Multipurpose Project: In Arunachal Pradesh; a storage based hydro-electric project with flood moderation as the key objective.

The Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar is conferred upon artists below the age of 40 years with the objective of identifying and encouraging outstanding young talents in diverse fields of performing arts and giving them national recognition early in their life, so that they may work with greater commitment and dedication in their chosen fields. 

Restoration work of Markandeshwar temple in Maharashtra by Archaeological Survey of India 

  • Known as the “Khajuraho of Vidarbha”, the temple of Markandadeo is situated on the bank of River Wainganga in district Gadchiroli of Maharashtra. 
  • The temples belong to the Nagara group of temples of North India.  
  • On stylistic grounds, their date ranges in between 9-12th centuries CE. 
  • The temples belong to saiva, vaishnava and sakta faith. 
  • Most of the temples have a simple plan, with ardhamandapa, mandapa, antarala and garbhagriha forming the component of the entire set up.
  • The most striking feature of this temple is the largescale destruction caused on the main shrine (garbhagriha) and the very first recordings made by Alexander Cunningham states that – about 200 years ago the shikhara of the main shrine and mahamandapa was struck by a lightning which led to the partial collapse of the shikhara (the finial, north and south facade).

Govt. drafted Digital Information Security in Healthcare Act (DISHA Act): To ensure data privacy, confidentiality, reliability and security of digital health data

‘Paramarsh’ – a University Grants Commission (UGC) scheme for Mentoring National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) Accreditation Aspirant Institutions to promote Quality Assurance in Higher Education 

  • The Scheme will be operationalized through a “Hub & Spoke” model wherein the Mentor Institution, called the “Hub” is centralized and will have the responsibility of guiding the Mentee institution through the secondary branches the “Spoke” through the services provided to the mentee for self-improvement. This allows a centralized control over operational efficiency, resource utilization to attain overall development of the mentee institution.
  • Will target 1000 Higher Education Institutions for mentoring with a specific focus on quality as enumerated in the UGC “Quality Mandate”. Mentor-Mentee relationship will not only benefit both the institutions but also provide quality education to the 3.6 crore students who are enrolling to Indian Higher Education system at present.

One Nation One Card

  • This National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) enables seamless travel by metro rails and other transport systems across the country besides retail shopping and purchases. 
  • National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) program, as envisaged by MoHUA (Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs), offers offline transactions independent of network connectivity by utilizing the existing infrastructure with banks. 
  • This card may be used for all payment applications (low value – offline/high value – online) including transit, retail, toll, parking and smart cities. 
  • The stored value of the card offers the offline transaction proposition across all low value segments.

Eradicating TB by 2025

The Ministry has developed the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Tuberculosis (2017-2025) with the goal of ending TB by 2025.

The key focus areas are:

  • Early diagnosis of all the TB patients, prompt treatment with quality assured drugs and treatment regimens along with suitable patient support systems to promote adherence.
  • Engaging with the patients seeking care in the private sector
  • Prevention strategies including active case finding and contact tracing in high risk / vulnerable population
  • Airborne infection control
  • Multi-sectoral response for addressing social determinants.

According to the World Health Organization Global TB report 2018, the estimated number of TB cases in India in 2017 was 27,40,000, amounting incidence of 204 per lakh population.

The Central Government administers the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI Act) which allows banks and financial institutions to recover their dues exceeding one lakh rupees by proceeding against secured assets of the borrower/guarantor without the intervention of the court/tribunals.

Challenges faced by Jawans at Siachen Glacier

The challenges faced by soldiers posted in Siachen Glacier stem from the peculiar terrain and weather conditions. The major challenges due to inclement weather conditions are –

  • Reduced human body efficiency
  • Bright sunlight leading to snow blindness
  • Blizzards
  • White out conditions
  • The troops deployed at forward posts bear the risk of avalanches, crevasses on glaciated surfaces and have to negotiate Ice walls apart from facing the common ailments associated with high altitude and glaciated terrain.

Plantation Labour Act: The Government is planning to subsume the Plantations Labour Act, 1951 in the Labour Code on Occupational Safety, Health and Working Condition Bill, 2019 which inter-alia aims to provide fair wages to plantation workers by limiting the kind component, to provide welfare facilities through the welfare schemes of the government and involve appropriate agencies in providing welfare schemes and enforcement of the provisions of the Act. The proposed Bill also aims to provide better welfare facilities to plantation workers such as medical, drinking water, educational facilities, housing facilities etc.

Organic Farming

  • Realizing the potential and benefits of organic farming and to improve the economic condition of farmers in the country, Government of India is promoting organic farming through the dedicated schemes of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) and Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region (MOVCDNER) under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) since 2015-16. Under PKVY, flexibility is given to states to adopt any model of Organic Farming including ZBNF depending on farmer’s choice that is free from chemicals, pesticides residues and adopts eco-friendly low cost technologies.
  • Under PKVY,   assistance of Rs. 50,000 per hectare/ 3 years is allowed out of which Rs. 31,000 (61%) is provided to farmer   directly through DBT   for input (biofertilisers, biopesticides, vermicompost, botanical extracts etc) production/ procurement, packing,   marketing etc.
  • Under MOVCDNER , assistance is provided to the farmers in a value chain mode starting from formation of Farmers Producer Organisations (FPOs), on/off farm input production, supply of seeds/ planting materials, post-harvest infrastructure including collection, sorting, grading facilities,   establishment of integrated processing unit, refrigerated transportation, pre-cooling/ cold stores chamber, branding, labelling and packaging, etc .

Steps to promote and stimulate the growth of MSME sector in the country

  • Simplification of the registration process through a one page Udyog Aadhar Memorandum (UAM)
  • Introduction of the ‘MSME SAMBANDH’ portal for monitoring the implementation of public procurement policy for the MSEs
  • Launching of the ‘MSME SAMADHAN’ portal for enabling MSMEs to directly register their cases relating to delayed payments. 
  • Further, schemes/programmes including Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP), Credit Guarantee Scheme, Credit Linked Capital Subsidy-Technological Up-gradation Scheme (CLCS-TUS) to support MSMEs in their technology up-gradation, Cluster Development Programme, Marketing Development Assistance and Skill/Entrepreneurship Development Programme etc. are also implemented to boost the MSME sector.

Nutrition in India

As per the Report of Nutritional Intake in India, 2011-12 published under 68th round of National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), the average dietary energy intake per person per day was 2233 Kcal for rural India and 2206 Kcal for urban India, which is lower than Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 2320 Kcal.

The Government has set up POSHAN Abhiyaan in 2017 for a three year time frame, commencing from 2017-18. The Abhiyaan aims to reduce malnutrition in the country in a phased manner, through a life cycle approach, by adopting a synergised and result oriented approach. The Abhiyaan will ensure mechanisms for timely service delivery and a robust monitoring as well as intervention infrastructure. 

The target of the Abhiyaan is

  • To reduce stunting in children (0-6 years), under-nutrition (underweight prevalence) in children (0-6 years) and Low Birth Weight @2% per annum
  • Reduce anaemia among young children (6-59 months), women and adolescent girls @3% per annum across the country. 

The major works undertaken under this Abhiyaan are 

  • Ensuring convergence with various other programmes
  • Information Technology enabled Common Application Software for strengthening service delivery and interventions
  • Community Mobilization and Awareness Advocacy leading to Jan Andolan- to educate the people on nutritional aspects
  • Capacity Building of Frontline Functionaries
  • Incentivizing States/ UTs for achieving goals

The Ujjawala Scheme is for prevention of trafficking, rescue, rehabilitation, re-integration and repatriation of victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation. There are 254 projects including 134 Protective and Rehabilitative Homes in the country. The number of beneficiaries are 5,291.

‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects under the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India. The responsibilities towards maintenance of law and order and protection of life and property of citizens rest primarily with State Governments.

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) 

  • To promote or undertake cover activities for the promotion of or to provide credit as an instrument of socio-economic change and development through the provision of a package of financial and social development services for the development of women;
  • To promote and support schemes for improvement of facilities for credit for women:
  • For sustenance of their existing employment,
  • For generation of further employment,
  • For asset creation,
  • For asset redemption and
  • For tiding over consumption, social and contingent needs;
  • To demonstrate and replicate participatory approaches in the organisation of women’s groups for effective utilisation of credit resources leading to self-reliance
  • To promote and support experiments in the voluntary and formal sector using innovative methodologies to reach poor women with credit and other social services;
  • To sensitize existing government delivery mechanisms and increase the visibility of poor women as a vital and clientele with the conventional institutions;
  • To promote research, study, documentation and analysis, including provision of fellowships and scholarships, of credit and its management and of successful experiences at various levels in order to promote replication and dissemination of successful credit extension and management methodologies;
  • To promote the federation and networking of women’s organisations for shaping and to develop skills in response management & social mobilization;
  • To promote and support the expansion of entrepreneurship skills among women;
  • To cooperate with and secure the cooperation of the Central Government, State Governments and Union Territory Administration, credit institutions, industrial and commercial organisation and non-government, voluntary and other organisations and bodies in promoting the objects of the Kosh;
  • To accept subscriptions, grants, contributions, donations, loans, guarantees, gifts, bequests etc. on such terms and obligations not inconsistent with the aims and objects of the Kosh; and
  • To do all such lawful acts and things as may be necessary or conductive for furthering the objects of the Kosh.

Upliftment of Women of Backward Communities

National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation (NBCFDC), an organization under the aegis of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has the following two women specific schemes for targeted women whose annual family income is less than Rs. 3.00 lakh per annum:

  • Mahila Samriddhi Yojana: To provide Micro Finance to women entrepreneurs of Backward Classes.
  • New Swarnima Scheme for Women: Term Loan to inculcate the spirit of self-dependence among the women of Backward Classes

Steps for skill development in Higher Education

  • To strengthen the knowledge and skills of the graduates, requisite for the current job market and to make them employable, the University Grants Commission (UGC) has adopted the Learning Outcome Based Curriculum Framework (LOCF) at Undergraduate Level as one of its Quality Improvement Programme mandate.
  • The UGC is also providing Skill based education under National Skill Qualification Framework in Colleges and Universities through its scheme of Community Colleges, B.Voc. Degree Programmes and Deen Dayal Upadhyay Centres for Knowledge Acquisition and Upgradation of Skilled Human Abilities and Livelihood (DDU KAUSHAL Kendras).
  • Further, a committee under the Chairmanship of Shri B.V.R. Mohan Reddy, Chairman, Board of Governors, IIT, Hyderabad was constituted on 18th October, 2018 for preparing short term and long term perspective plan for the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). The committee submitted its report and Executive Committee of AICTE has approved the report. Main recommendations of the committee include (i) courses on emerging technologies namely, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Block chain, Robotics, Quantum Computing, Data Sciences, Cyber Security, 3D Printing & Design & Augmented Reality (AR)/ Virtual Reality (VR); and (ii) greater focus on multi-disciplining courses by reducing the seats in conventional disciplines and converting the existing seats into these courses.
  • Another Committee was also constituted for revamping and attuning curricula of National Institutes of Technology (NITs) to look into the needs of the industry and honing skills of the students coming out of the institutions. The recommendations of the Committee have been accepted by the Council of National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research

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