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Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 21st July to 29th July – 2019

  • IASbaba
  • August 5, 2019
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Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 21st  to 29th July – 2019

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GS-2

Parliament Passes the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill, 2019

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 was enacted to provide for the constitution of a National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), the State Human Rights Commission (SHRC) and the Human Rights Courts for protection of human rights.

The Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill, 2019, inter alia, provides

  • That a person who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court is also made eligible to be appointed as Chairperson of the Commission in addition to the person who has been the Chief Justice of India
  • To increase the Members of the Commission from two to three of which, one shall be a woman
  • To include Chairperson of the National Commission for Backward Classes, Chairperson of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights and the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities as deemed Members of the Commission
  • To reduce the term of the Chairperson and Members of the Commission and the State Commissions from five to three years and shall be eligible for re-appointment
  • To provide that a person who has been a Judge of a High Court is also made eligible to be appointed as Chairperson of the State Commission in addition to the person who has been the Chief Justice of the High Court
  • To confer upon State Commissions, the functions relating to human rights being discharged by the Union territories, other than the Union territory of Delhi, which will be dealt with by the Commission

Lok Sabha passes the Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

  • To provide that the term of office of, and the salaries, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of, the Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners and the State Chief Information Commissioner and the State Information Commissioners, shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government
  • The Government has encouraged suo motu dissemination of maximum information by Government Departments in order to reduce number of RTIs
  • According to the original RTI act of 2005, the power of framing rules in respect of Information Commissions does not fall under the purview of either the Union or the State or the Concurrent lists. Hence, framing rules, even for the State Information Commissions, falls under the Residuary powers of the Union Government.

The Code on Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Bill, 2019 

(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

Aim: To amend the laws regulating the Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions of the persons employed in an establishment.

Safety, Health, welfare and improved Working Conditions are pre-requisite for well-being of the worker and also for economic growth of the country as healthy workforce of the country would be more productive and occurrence of less accidents and unforeseen incidents would be economically beneficial to the employers also.

With the ultimate aim of extending the safety and healthy working conditions to all workforce of the country, the Code enhances the ambit of provisions of safety, health, welfare and working conditions from existing about 9 major sectors to all establishments having 10 or more employees. 

The proposed Code enhances the coverage of workers manifold as it would be applicable to all establishments employing 10 or more workers, where any industry, trade, business, manufacture or occupation is carried on, including, IT establishments or establishments of service sector.


India and Myanmar Sign MoU on Defence Co-Operation

(Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests)

Aimed at enhancing defence co-operation, review joint exercises and training provided to Myanmar Defence Services, strengthen maritime security by joint surveillance and capacity building, medical co-operation, pollution response and for developing new infrastructure.

 

Please Note

National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme: For rehabilitation of child labour

Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour (PENCIL): To ensure effective enforcement of the provisions of the Child Labour Act and smooth implementation of the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme

Protection and Preservation of Endangered Languages of India Scheme: To preserve endangered languages of the country

Atal Pension Yojana: Launched with the objective of creating a universal social security system for all Indians, especially the poor, the under-privileged and the workers in the unorganised sector. 

National Skill Development Mission (NSDM): Launched to provide a strong institutional framework to implement and scale up skill development efforts across the country. Under this initative, the Government is implementing more than 40 skill development schemes/programmes across 20 Central Ministries/Departments, for providing a variety of skill development training programmes on pan India basis.  As per the information provided by Ministries, 85.98 Lakh persons have been trained in 2018-19.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 2.0 (PMKVY 2.0): Launched on pan-India basis with a target to provide skilling to one crore people across the country in various sectors including Agriculture. Under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) component of PMKVY 2.0, up skilling of farmers have been made via bridge course training in the job roles namely organic grower, dairy farmer, pulses cultivator etc.

Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) is a placement linked skill development program which allows skilling in a PPP mode and assured placements in regular jobs in an organization not owned by the skilled person. A total of 2.28 lakh youths have been trained in the year 2018-19 against a target of skilling of 2 lakh rural youth.

Skill development through Rural Self Employment and Training Institutes (RSETI), thereby enabling the trainee to take Bank credit and start his/her own Micro-enterprise.

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM): With the objective of organizing the rural poor women into Self Help Groups (SHGs), and continuously nurturing and supporting them to take economic activities till they attain appreciable increase in income over a period of time to improve their quality of life and come out of abject poverty.

GSLV MkIII-M1 Successfully Launches Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft: India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV MkIII-M1, successfully launched the 3840 kg Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft into an earth orbit today. The spacecraft is now revolving round the earth with a perigee (nearest point to Earth) of 169.7 km and an apogee (farthest point to Earth) of 45,475 km.

JATAN: Virtual Museum software which is used for creating the digital collections in various museums and digital archival tools that are used in background for managing the National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian Museums.

Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX): iDEX is aimed at creation of an ecosystem to foster innovation and technology development in Defence and Aerospace by engaging Industries including MSMEs, Start-ups, Individual Innovators, R&D institutes and Academia and provide them grants/funding and other support to carry out R&D which has potential for future adoption for Indian defence and aerospace needs.

Mission Raksha Gyan Shakti: Aims to provide boost to the IPR culture in indigenous defence industry

Chapter IV of the Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (FRA Act in short) provides that the Gram Sabha shall be the authority to initiate the process for determining the nature and extent of individual or community forest rights or both that may be given to the forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers within the local limits of its jurisdiction under this Act by receiving claims, consolidating and verifying them and preparing a map delineating the area of each recommended claim in such manner as may be prescribed for exercise of such rights and the Gram Sabha shall, then, pass a resolution to that effect and thereafter forward a copy of the same to the Sub-Divisional Level Committee.  

The National Afforestation Programme (NAP) is for regeneration of degraded forests and adjoining areas through people’s participation. The scheme is being implemented through a decentralized mechanism of State Forest Development Agency (SFDA) at State level, Forest Development agency (FDA) at Forest Division level and Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at village level.

Poshan Abhiyaan

POSHAN Abhiyaan has been set up by Government of India on 18.12.2017 for a three-year time frame commencing from 2017-18 with an aim to reduce the level of stunting in children (0-6 years), under-nutrition (underweight prevalence)in children (0-6 years) and Low Birth Weight at 2% per annum and reduce anaemia among young children (6-59 months), women and adolescent girls at 3% per annum across the country.

The Abhiyaan ensures convergence with various programmes, organising Community Based Events;incentivising States/UTs for achieving goals. Community Mobilization and Awareness Advocacy leading to Jan Andolan – to educate the people on nutritional aspects.

Malnutrition is not a direct cause of death among children under five years of age; however, it can increase morbidity and mortality by reducing resistance to infections. Malnourished children are more vulnerable to any infection than normal children, therefore, data regarding child mortality due to malnutrition is not maintained by this Ministry. The overall child mortality rate as per NFHS- 4 is 9.4 which is declined from 18.4 as per previous NFHS- 3.

Radiation Technology for Sewage Treatment: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in collaboration with Amdavad Municipal Corporation (AMC), Ahmedabad has set up a Technology Demonstration Pilot Project “Sewage Sludge Hygienisation Plant” at Shahwadi, Ahmedabad. Another liquid sludge irradiator; Sludge Hygienisation Research Irradiator (SHRI) is operating at Vadodara for radiation treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4% solids since last 30 years.

Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram is an initiative targeting livelihood generation for tribal population by harnessing the wealth of forest i.e. Van Dhan. The programme aims to tap into the traditional knowledge and skill sets of tribal people by adding technology and Information Technology for upgradation of output at each stage and to convert the tribal wisdom into a remunerative economic activity. Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram seeks to promote and leverage the collective strength of tribal people to achieve a viable scale.

Swadesh Darshan Scheme: The Ministry of Tourism, under the Swadesh Darshan Scheme provides Central Financial Assistance to State Governments/Union Territory (UT) Administrations for development of thematic tourist circuits in the country, with the objective of improving connectivity and infrastructure of tourism destinations to enrich overall tourist experience, enhance livelihood and employment opportunities and to attract domestic as well as foreign tourists to the destinations.

  • The projects for development are identified in consultation with the State Governments/UT Administrations and are sanctioned subject to submission of project proposals, their adherence to relevant scheme guidelines, submission of suitable detailed project reports, availability of funds and utilization of funds released earlier.
  • Development of Tirthankar Circuit: Vaishali-Arrah-Masad-Patna-Rajgir-Pawapuri-Champapuri in Bihar

Zero Budget Farming – Intercropping 

It is a scientifically proven practice and has got several advantages and extends economic benefits for the farmers particularly under adverse weather conditions.  

  • It is largely practiced in dry-land areas as an insurance against failure of main crop. Under All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Integrated Farming Systems, intercropping systems have been studied for many States and found profitable for farmers. 
  • Intercrops act as live mulch thereby reducing the weeds, water requirement and also providing additional returns to the farmers. Intercropping with leguminous crops is one of the components of Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) and it improves the crop productivity and soil fertility by way of fixing the atmospheric nitrogen. Further, the cowdung, urine based formulations and botanical extracts used in ZBNF help farmers in reducing the input cost.
  • The farmers practicing ZBNF either of small land holding or large land holding prepare the low cost cow urine and dung based formulation on farm by procuring the required inputs locally from the village or neighboring villages.

Dignity and Security of Women Workers

  • The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 provides for payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers for same work or work of similar nature
  • The Minimum Wages Act, 1948 provides for minimum wages
  • The Payment of Wages Act, 1936 ensures timely payment respectively to both male and female workers without any gender discrimination. 

A number of other protective measures have also been provided in various Labour Laws in order to ensure dignity, security and congenial work environment for a women worker. Such measures include child care centers, time-off for feeding children, enhancement in paid maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks, provisions for mandatory crèche facility in the establishments having 50 or more employees etc.

The Ministry has taken steps for drafting four Labour Codes namely The Code on Wages; The Code on Industrial Relations; The Code on Social Security & Welfare; and The Code on Occupation Safety, Health and Working Conditions by simplifying, amalgamating and rationalizing the relevant provisions of the existing Central Labour Laws without any gender discrimination. The Labour Codes envisage extension of minimum wages and timely payment of wages to all 50 Crore workers, provision of appointment letter, provision for annual medical check-up, extension of safety and other welfare provisions are also stipulated for both male & female workers.

Land Rights of Scheduled Tribes

Land and its management fall under the exclusive legislative and administrative jurisdiction of States as provided under the Constitution of India (Seventh Schedule)-List-II (State List)-Entry No. (18).

The Scheduled Tribes (STs) have been the most marginalised, isolated and deprived population.  To protect and safeguarding the land rights of STs and to address the issue of Land Acquisition and displacement of tribals, following Constitutional and legal provisions have been put in place:

  1. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (FRA in short), in section 4(5) states that save as other wise provided, no member of a forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes or Other Traditional Forest Dweller shall be evicted or removed from the Forest Land under his occupation till the recognition and verification procedure is complete.
  2. Under Section 5 of FRA, Gram Sabha is, inter-alia, empowered to ensure the decision taken in Gram Sabha to regulate access to community forest resources and stop any activity which adversely affects the wild animals, forest and the biodiversity are complied with.
  3. Government has enacted the ‘Right to fair compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (RFCTLARR Act, 2013 in short).  The purpose of the said Act is to ensure, in consultation with institutions of local self-government and Gram Sabhas established under the Constitution, a humane, participative, informed and transparent process for land acquisition with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and other affected families and provide just and fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been acquired or proposed to be acquired.
  4. Under Section 48 of RFCTLARR Act, 2013, a National Level Monitoring Committee for Rehabilitation and Resettlement has been constituted in the DoLR vide DoLR’s Order No. 26011/04/2017-LRD dated 2nd March, 2015 for the purpose of reviewing and monitoring the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement schemes and plans related to land acquisition under the RFCTLARR, 2013 and National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007.
  5. By way of safeguards against displacement special provisions have been made for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes under Section 41 and 42 of the RFCTLARR Act, 2013 which protect their interests.    As per Section 41 (1), as far as possible, no acquisition of land shall be made in the Scheduled Areas.  As per Section 41(2),where such acquisition does take place, it shall be done only as a demonstrable last resort.  As per Section 41(3),in case of acquisition or alternation of any land in Scheduled Areas, the prior consent of the concerned Gram Sabha or the Panchayats or the autonomous District Councils, at the appropriate level in Scheduled Areas under the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, as the case may be, shall be obtained, in all cases of land acquisition in such areas, including acquisition in case of urgency, before issue of a notification under this Act, or any other 9entral Act or a State Act for the time being in force.  The RFCTLARR Act, 2013 also lays down procedure and manner of rehabilitation and resettlement.
  6. The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Area) Act, 1996, also provides that the Gram Sabha or the Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be consulted before making the acquisition of land in the Scheduled Areas or development projects and before resettling or rehabilitating persons affected by such projects in the Scheduled Areas, the actual planning and implementation of the projects in the Scheduled Areas shall be coordinated at the State Level.
  7. Constitutional provision under Schedule-V also provide for safeguards against displacement of tribal population because of land acquisition etc.   The Governor of the State which has scheduled Areas is empowered to prohibit or restrict transfer of land from tribals and regulate he allotment of land to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such cases.   Land being a State subject, various provisions of rehabilitation and resettlement as per the RFCTLARR Act, 2013 are implemented by the concerned State Governments.
  8. The Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989” has been introduced to prevent the commission of offences of atrocities against members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, to provide for the trial of such offences and for the relief of rehabilitation of the victims of such offences for  matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.  Wrongfully dispossessing members of Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes from their land or premises or interfering with the enjoyment of their rights, including forest rights, over any land or premises or water or irrigation facilities or destroying the crops or taking away the produce there from amount to offence of atrocities and are subject to punishment under the said Act.

Personality in News

Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

  • Father of Indian Unrest
  • Popularly known as Lokmanya, and dedicated his life for the cause of “Purna Swaraj” (complete self-rule)
  • One of the founders of the Fergusson College in Pune
  • One of the first advocates of Swaraj or self-rule. He gave the slogan, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.”
  • Along with Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, he was called the ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’ trio of extremist leaders
  • One of the founders of the All India Home Rule League, along with Annie Besant and G S Khaparde, and served as its president and in 1916 he concluded the Lucknow Pact with Mohammed Ali Jinnah, which provided for Hindu-Muslim unity in the nationalist struggle
  • Newspaper: Kesari in Marathi and Mahratta in English

Qn: Compare and contrast the nationalism of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Chandra Shekhar Azad

  • Popularly known as ‘Azad’; It is believed that on being presented before a magistrate, he gave his name as “Azad” (The Free), his father’s name as “Swatantrata” (Independence) and his residence as “Jail”. From that day he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar Azad among the people.
  • Became extremely popular after Kakori Rail Dacoity in 1925 and assassination of policeman John Saunders in year 1928
  • The Colt pistol of Chandra Shekhar Azad is displayed at the Prayagraj Museum
  • The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy which took place in 1919 was when he decided to join the Non-Cooperation movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
  • He was the chief strategist of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).

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