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Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

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  • November 11, 2019
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IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

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(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)


Kalapani

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II – International Relations

In News

  • The new political map of India, recently released by the government to account for the bifurcation of Jammu and Kashmir, shows Kalapani as part of Indian territory.
  • Kalapani is a 372-sq km area mapped within Uttarakhand, bordering far-west Nepal and Tibet.
  • While the Nepal government and political parties have protested, India has said the new map does not revise the existing boundary with Nepal and accurately depicts the sovereign territory of India. 
  • The Nepal’s Western boundary with India was marked out in the Treaty of Sugauli between the East India Company and Nepal in 1816. 
  • However,Nepali authorities claim that people living in the low-density area were included in the Census of Nepal until 58 years ago.
  • In 2014, Foreign Minister Mahendra Bahadur Pande claimed that the late King Mahendra had “handed over the territory to India”. By some accounts in Nepal, this allegedly took place in the wake of India-China War of 1962.
  • A committee formed by the Nepal government to study this claim submitted a report to Prime Minister Oli during his first tenure. It claimed that India had “occupied” an additional 62 sq km land.
  • Bilateral talks: The Prime Ministers of the two countries discussed the issue in 2000, with Atal Bihari Vajpayee assuring Nepal that India would not occupy even an inch of Nepal. 
  • Apart from Kalapani, another unresolved issue involves a vast area along the Nepal-Uttar Pradesh border. During his visit to Nepal in 2014, Prime Minister Modi had said that the Susta and Kalapani issues would be sorted out.
Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

https://images.indianexpress.com/2019/11/map-1.jpg?w=759&h=736&imflag=true


HS code

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III – Economy

In News

  • The Ministry of Commerce and Industry allocated a separate Harmonised System (HS) code for Khadi.
  • The Harmonised System, or simply ‘HS’, is a six-digit identification code developed by the World Customs Organization (WCO).
  • Called the “universal economic language” for goods, it is a multipurpose international product nomenclature.
  • Over 200 countries use the system as a basis for their customs tariffs, gathering international trade statistics, making trade policies, and for monitoring goods. 
  • The system helps in harmonising of customs and trade procedures, thus reducingcosts in international trade
  • The absence of a separate HS code hindered Khadi from achieving its full potential, as its exports were difficult to categorise and calculate. The latest move is expected to help resolve this issue.

Zero Carbon Law

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Environment Conservation

In News

  • New Zealand’s Parliament passed The Zero-Carbon Act, which will commit New Zealand to zero carbon emissions by 2050 or sooner, as part of the country’s attempts to meet its Paris climate accord commitments.
  • This is the first legislation in the world to make a legally binding commitment to living within 1.5 degrees Celsius of global warming.
  • The key aims of the Act include: 
    • Reduce all greenhouse gases (except methane) to net zero by 2050,
    • Reduce emissions of biogenic methane (produced from biological sources) up to 24-47 percent below 2017 levels by 2050 and to 10 percent below 2017 levels by 2030
    • Establish an independent Climate Change Commission 
    • Establish a system of emissions budget.

About Biogenic methane 

  • It is emitted by livestock, waste treatment and wetlands.
  • The Act proposes separate targets for biogenic methane because methane is a short-lived gas and degrades into the atmosphere over the decades even though it is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide

Do You Know?

  • New Zealand is well positioned to undertake steps to mitigate climate change. Its capacity to generate electricity from renewable resources is at 80 per cent, and it is working towards phasing out the use of offshore oil and gas.
  • New Zealand government anticipates that GDP and household incomes in New Zealand will continue to rise, minimising the cost of adapting to climate change for the citizens.
  • Globally, there are over 1500 laws on climate change, over 100 of which were introduced after the introduction of the Paris Agreement and over 28 of them explicitly reference the agreement.

World’s first CNG port terminal

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Energy

In News

  • The Gujarat government gave approval to a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) terminal at Bhavnagar port with a proposed investment of Rs 1,900 crore.
  • Bhavnagar Port is being administered by Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB), which signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Foresight Group during the Vibrant Gujarat Summit held in January 2019
  • The proposed CNG terminal will have a cargo capacity to handle of 1.5 million metric tonne per annum (MMTPA). 
  • The consortium of company will also develop facilities like Ro-Ro terminal, liquid cargo terminal and container terminal at Bhavnagar port
  • The GMB manages the existing port at Bhavnagar, having a capacity to handle three MMTPA cargo, and the new terminals would take the overall capacity to nine MMTPA.

About CNG

  • CNG is made by compressing natural gas, (which is mainly composed of methane, CH4), to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure.
  • CNG is a fossil fuel substitute for petrol, diesel, or LPG.
  • CNG is cheaper – CNG is almost one third the price of super petrol, resulting in substantial savings in fuel costs.
  • CNG reduces maintenance cost – CNG contains no additives and burns cleanly leaving no by-products of combustion to contaminate your spark plugs and engine oil.
  • CNG is more environment friendly – Harmful emissions such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be reduced by as much as 95% when compared to gasoline powered vehicles.

Maternal death rate declining

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains II -Health

In News

  • India’s Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) has seen a decline from 130 per 1 lakh live births in 2014-2016 to 122 per 1 lakh live births in 2015-2017.
  • As per the WHO maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
  • The major complications that account for nearly 75% of all maternal deaths are: severe bleeding, infections (usually after child birth), high blood pressure during pregnancy, complications from delivery and unsafe abortion.
  • The WHO says the MMR dropped by 38% worldwide between 2000 and 2017. However, an estimated 810 women died every day in 2017 from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.
  • In India, from 2015 to 2017 shows 68% of deaths were among women in the age group of 20-29.
  • Nearly 4% of deaths were in the age group of 15 to 19 which highlights the problem of early marriages and teenage pregnancies in India.

Do You Know?

  • Public health initiatives under the National Health Mission such as LaQshya, Poshan Abhiyan, Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan, Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram, Janani Suraksha Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana have contributed to decline of MMR in India.
  • India is now committed to ensuring that not a single mother or newborn dies due to a preventable cause and move towards zero preventable maternal and newborn deaths through the recently launched Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan Initiative (SUMAN).
  • The WHO had last year lauded India’s progress in reducing the MMR, saying the progress puts the country on track towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of an MMR below 70 by 2030.
Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

https://d39gegkjaqduz9.cloudfront.net/TH/2019/11/11/MUM/Mumbai/TH/5_05/ebc8e699_3313150_101_mr.jpg


T.N.Seshan

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains IV – Ethics

In News

  • Mr. Seshan belonged to the 1955 batch of Tamil Nadu cadre officers of the IAS.
  • At the Centre, Mr. Seshan held several positions, including Environment and Forests Secretary, Defence Secretary and later, Cabinet Secretary
  • When Chandra Shekhar became Prime Minister with the support of the Congress, Mr. Seshan was made CEC in December 1990
  • T.N. Seshan, as CEC during 1990-96, initiated the process of cleaning up the electoral system. The introduction of electors’ photo identity cards was a measure towards this direction.
  • He also saw to it that the model code of conduct, till then considered a document of academic interest, was taken seriously by the parties and candidates
  • In the mid-1990s, Mr. Seshan was seen as a crusader against corruption and electoral malpractices
  • His work was recognised internationally when he was given the Ramon Magsaysay award for 1996.
  • In July 1997, Mr. Seshan unsuccessfully contested the presidential election against K.R. Narayanan.

(MAINS FOCUS)


SOCIETY

TOPIC: General Studies 1:

  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Ayodhya dispute 

Context:

  • A five-judge Bench of the Supreme Court has allowed the construction of a temple in the Babri Masjid-Ram Janmabhoomi site in Ayodhya, 
  • Also ordered  the grant of a five-acre plot to the U.P. Central Sunni Wakf Board for the construction of a mosque.

Back ground:

  • The Ayodhya dispute is a political, historical and socio-religious debate in India, centred on a plot of land in the city of Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh. 
  • The Babri Masjid was destroyed during a political rally in December 1992. 

Crux:

  • Hindus believed  that the Babri Masjid, was built in Ayodhya after destroying a Ram Temple that marked the birthplace of the deity. 
  • The Hindu parties wanted the land to themselves, contending that Lord Ram was born at a spot on which later the central dome of the mosque was built. 
  • The Muslim parties, believed that the mosque was constructed in 1528 by Mir Baqi, a commander of Babur’s army, without demolishing any place of worship and the space was rightfully theirs.

First time court:

  • The matter went to court as far back as 1885. 
  • Mahant Raghubar Dass filed a suit as “mahant of the janmasthan” for permission to build a temple on a 17 feet x 21 feet Chabutra (platform) outside the mosque.
  • Dismissed the suit.

Landmark events:

  • Surreptitious planting of the idols in 1949
  • A local court ordered that the locks be opened for Hindu worshippers giving a big push to the temple movement

Allahabad high court judgement 2010:

  • Allahabad High Court ruled that the 2.77 acres (1.12 ha) of Ayodhya land be divided into three parts, with ​1⁄3 going to the Ram Lalla or Infant Rama represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha, ​1⁄3 going to the Sunni Waqf Board and the remaining ​1⁄3 going to Nirmohi Akhara.
  • The judgment affirmed that the disputed land was the birthplace of Rama as per the faith and belief of Hindus, and that the Babri Masjid was built after the demolition of a Hindu temple, noting that it wasn’t built in accordance with the tenets of Islam.

SC Judgment 2019:

  • Vacated the previous decision and ruled that the land belonged to the government per tax records.
  • It further ordered the land to be handed over to a trust to build the Hindu temple.
  •  It also ordered to the government to give alternate 5 acre land to Sunni Waqf Board to build the mosque.

Status of Ayodhya:

  • Lack of development, despite the town being located just 125 km from the State capital.
  • Lack of jobs and investment
  • Poor infrastructure 
  • Underdeveloped tourism economy have kept Ayodhya far behind other important Hindu religious centres like Mathura and Varanasi.
  • The high-pitched events not only disrupted daily life and business, but also endangered communal harmony in the region.

Connecting the dots:

  • Ayodhya became the centrestage for communal politics and a tool for polarisation before elections. Analyse

IR

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.

Protests in Chile  and Lebanon 

Chile:

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

Img: https://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/south-america/chile/map_of_chile.jpg

  • Civil protests throughout Chile in response to a raise in the Santiago Metro’s subway fare, the increased cost of living, privatisation and inequality prevalent in the country
  • The situation escalated as organized bands of protesters rose in rebellion across the city, seizing many stations of the Santiago Metro network
  • President of Chile Sebastián Piñera announced a state of emergency
  • The protests have been considered the “worst civil unrest” having occurred in Chile since the end of Augusto Pinochet’s military dictatorship
  • Over a million people took to the streets throughout Chile to protest against President Piñera, demanding his resignation
  • Human rights organisations have received several reports of violations conducted against protesters by security forces, including torture, sexual abuse and rape

Causes for protests:

  • Rise in public transport fares
  • Rising cost of living
  • Income inequality
  • Privatisation
  • Corruption scandals

Goals of protests:

  • Reversal of public transport fares
  • Reforms in education, healthcare, and pension systems
  • Better wages, minimum wage increase
  • Resignation of President Sebastián Piñera
  • Draft a new constitution

Lebanon:

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 11th November 2019

Img: https://i.pinimg.com/originals/d4/cf/37/d4cf37fc6b4b8dfae17d654946df8d04.jpg

  • The 2019 Lebanese protests  are a series of country-wide  protests. 
  • The protests are motivated by the Lebanese government’s failure to find solutions to an economic crisis that has been looming for the past year.

Causes for the protest:

  • A reaction against sectarian rule
  • Endemic corruption in the public sector, 
  • Failures from the government to provide basic services such as electricity, water and sanitation.
  • Taxes on gasoline, tobacco and online phone calls such as through WhatsApp.

Economic crisis:

  • The Lebanese economy has a growth averaging 9.1% between 2007 and 2010
  • After 2011 the economy was affected by the Syrian civil war, by a yearly average of 1.7% on the 2011-2018.
  • Lebanon is the third-highest indebted country in the world in terms of the ratio of debt-to-GDP. 
  • Limited the government’s ability to make needed investments in infrastructure and other public goods.

Connecting the dots:

  • Compare the economic situation in Chile and Lebanon with the current state of economy of India. Elucidate

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note: 

  • Correct answers of today’s questions will be provided in next day’s DNA section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers. 
  • Comments Up-voted by IASbaba are also the “correct answers”.

Q.1) World’s first CNG(Compressed Natural Gas) port terminal is being developed at which place?

  1. Mundra Port
  2. Bhavnagar Port
  3. Kolkata Port
  4. Mangalore Port

Q.2) Consider the following statements about HS (Harmonised system) code.

  1. It is a six-digit identification code developed by the World Economic Forum.
  2. It helps in harmonising of customs and trade procedures between nearly 200 countries, thus reducing costs in international trade 
  3. Ministry of Commerce and Industry has recently allocated a separate Harmonised System (HS) code for Khadi.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 Only
  2. 2 and 3 Only
  3. 1 and 3 Only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.3) Susta and Kalapani often seen in news are contentious issues between which two countries?

  1. Nepal and China
  2. India and Bhutan
  3. India and Myanmar
  4. India and Nepal

Q.4) Consider the following statements

  1. Methane is a long-lived gas and degrades into the atmosphere over the thousands of centuries and thus it is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide
  2. Biogenic methane is the methane emitted by livestock, waste treatment and wetlands.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.5) Consider the following statements about Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan Initiative (SUMAN)

  1. It is being implemented by Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  2. Its objective isto provide quality healthcare at zero cost, to pregnant women, new mothers and newborns.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

ANSWERS FOR 09 Nov 2019 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE (TYK)

1 C
2 B
3 B
4 C
5 B

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