Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC –20th July to 27th July, 2020
Kargil Vijay Diwas
(Topic: Modern History)
July 26 is celebrated as “Kargil Vijay Diwas” every year to mark the successful completion of “Operation Vijay” that ended the 3-month war along the Line of Control. Nearly 490 Indian army officers, soldiers and jawans were killed during the course of the battle.
After nuclear tests of two rival countries of South Asia, India and Pakistan in 1998, Kargil was the first major conflict in 1999 which almost took the shape of bloody war with heavy losses of life and economy. This event, also known as Operation Vijay changed the course of South Asian geopolitics forever.
Immediate geopolitical effects of Kargil war:
- International community including China, nearly unanimously convicted that Pakistan was culpable.
- India Confirms Its Worst Beliefs about Pakistan are true.
- Pakistan realised that Kargil-like operations are not viable in the current international environment.
- With a coup d’état, Pakistan came under military rule
Long term effects on South Asian geopolitics
- It was beginning of international isolation of Pakistan.
- Aftermath of war decreased the legitimacy of Pakistan on international platforms.
- Close watch of international community increased over two Nuclear powers India and Pakistan to avoid any major war.
- Pakistan realised that Kargil-like operations are not viable in the current global environment, so it adopted other tactics such as Proxy war or terrorist activities and increased militancy.
- These tactics are to “calibrate” the heat of the insurgency in Kashmir and possibly pressure India through the expansion of violence in other portions of India’s territory, for example 2008 Mumbai Terror Attack.
- On one hand proximity between China and Pakistan increased, on the other hand relations between India and Afghanistan also reached to another level.
- India Strengthened its Determination to Marginalize Pakistan on Kashmir
- One of the major impacts of Kargil war is decline of SAARC and subsequent rise of BIMSTEC.
- Moral victory of India in Kargil strengthened the position of India as idol of democracy and net security provider amongst South Asian countries such as Nepal, Bhutan
The Way Forward: Pakistan refused to learn the lessons but India established a review committee under K Subrahmanyam and followed up on most of the recommendations. Twenty years on, undertaking reforms in the spirit of the Kargil review committee to prepare for the challenges for the future will be the best tribute to the 527 soldiers who lost their lives on the icy heights of Kargil.
Triple Talaq- Big Reform, Better Result
(Topic: Women’s Rights; Judiciary)
The month of August is recognised as a “Month of Revolution, Rights & Reforms” in the Indian history
08th August: Quit India Movement
15th August: Independence Day
19th August: World Humanitarian Day
20th August: Sadbhavana Diwas
5th August: Article 370 was abolished
1st August is a day which made Muslim women free from social evil of Triple Talaq;
1st August has been recorded in the country’s history as “Muslim Women Rights Day”.
- Triple Talaq Bill has made giving instant oral triple talaq a criminal offense with provisions of jail term up to three years.
- The law now gives a police officer the power to arrest the offender without requiring a warrant. However, to check misuse, the police takes cognisance only if the complaint is filed by the aggrieved woman or any of her relation by blood or marriage.
- The Bill also provides for bail by a magistrate but only after hearing the aggrieved woman. The aggrieved woman is entitled to demand a maintenance for her and her dependent children under the Act
There has been about 82% decline in triple talaq cases since the law against the “social evil” was put in place
Do you know?
- In August 2017 the Supreme Court, by a majority of 3:2, set aside the practice of triple talaq in Shyara Bano Case.
- The judgment held triple talaq to be unconstitutional under Article 14 read with Article 13(1) and concluded that the practice is not essential to the practice of Islam(Article 25)
- The practice of “triple talaq” was abolished in 38 countries including Muslim-majority countries of Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Afghanistan and Pakistan
- Egypt was the first Muslim nation which abolished this social evil in 1929.
Consumer Protection Act, 2019 comes into force
(Topic: Government schemes and policies)
The new Act will empower consumers and help them in protecting their rights through its various notified Rules and provisions like Consumer Protection Councils, Consumer Disputes Redressal Commissions, Mediation, Product Liability and punishment for manufacture or sale of products containing adulterant / spurious goods.
The Act includes establishment of the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers. The CCPA will be empowered to conduct investigations into violations of consumer rights and institute complaints / prosecution, order recall of unsafe goods and services, order discontinuance of unfair trade practices and misleading advertisements, impose penalties on manufacturers/endorsers/publishers of misleading advertisements.
What stands out: The Act to provide protection to buyers not only from traditional sellers but also from the new e-commerce retailers/platforms.
Under this act, every e-commerce entity is required to provide information relating to return, refund, exchange, warranty and guarantee, delivery and shipment, modes of payment, grievance redressal mechanism, payment methods, security of payment methods, charge-back options, etc. including country of origin which are necessary for enabling the consumer to make an informed decision at the pre-purchase stage on its platform.
- E-commerce platforms have to acknowledge the receipt of any consumer complaint within forty-eight hours and redress the complaint within one month from the date of receipt under this Act.
- The New Act introduces the concept of product liability and brings within its scope, the product manufacturer, product service provider and product seller, for any claim for compensation.
- The process: The new Act provides for simplifying the consumer dispute adjudication process in the consumer commissions, which include, among others, empowerment of the State and District Commissions to review their own orders, enabling a consumer to file complaints electronically and file complaints in consumer Commissions that have jurisdiction over the place of his residence, videoconferencing for hearing and deemed admissibility of complaints if the question of admissibility is not decided within the specified period of 21 days.
- Dispute Resolution: An Alternate Dispute Resolution mechanism of Mediation has been provided in the new Act. This will simplify the adjudication process. A complaint will be referred by a Consumer Commission for mediation, wherever scope for early settlement exists and parties agree for it. Mediation will be held in the Mediation Cells to be established under the aegis of the Consumer Commissions. There will be no appeal against settlement through mediation.
- Price: As per the Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission Rules, there will be no fee for filing cases upto Rs. 5 lakh. There are provisions for filing complaints electronically, credit of amount due to unidentifiable consumers to Consumer Welfare Fund (CWF). The State Commissions will furnish information to Central Government on a quarterly basis on vacancies, disposal, pendency of cases and other matters.
- Punishment: The Act provides for punishment by a competent court for manufacture or sale of adulterant/spurious goods. The court may, in case of first conviction, suspend any licence issued to the person for a period of up to two years, and in case of second or subsequent conviction, cancel the licence.
- Other rules: Under this new Act, besides general rules, there are Central Consumer Protection Council Rules, Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission Rules, Appointment of President & Members in State/District Commission Rules, Mediation Rules, Model Rules and E-Commerce Rules and Consumer Commission Procedure Regulations, Mediation Regulations and Administrative control over State Commission & District Commission Regulations.
India to strengthen its claim of Pharmaceuticals Hub in the world
(Topic: Government schemes and policies under Atmanirbhar Bharat)
For making India Atma Nirbhar in pharma sector, the Government of India has approved four schemes, two each for Bulk Drugs and Medical Devices parks.
Scheme for promotion of Bulk Drug Parks: The scheme envisages creation of 3 bulk drug parks in the country. The grant-in-aid will be 90% of the project cost in case of North-East and hilly States and 70% in case of other States.
Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for promoting domestic manufacturing of Medical Devices: The scheme intends to boost domestic manufacturing of medical devices in four target segments by giving financial incentives on sales to a maximum number of 28 selected applicants for a period of 5 years. Four target segments are:-
- Cancer care / Radiotherapy medical devices
- Radiology & Imaging medical devices (both ionizing & non-ionizing radiation products) and Nuclear Imaging devices
- Anesthetics & Cardio-Respiratory medical devices including catheters of Cardio Respiratory Category & Renal Care medical devices
- AII Implants including implantable electronic devices
Background: India is often referred to as ‘the pharmacy of the world’ and this has been proved true especially in the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic when India continued to export critical lifesaving medicines to needy countries even during the countrywide lockdown. However, despite these achievements, it is a matter of concern that our country is critically dependent on imports for basic raw materials, viz. Bulk Drugs (Key Starting Materials (KSMs)/ Drug Intermediates (DIs) and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)) that are used to produce some of the essential medicines. Similarly in medical devices sector, our country is dependent on imports for 86% of its requirements of medical devices.
These schemes will make India not only self-reliant but also capable of catering to the global demand for the selected bulk drugs and medical devices.
- This is a golden opportunity for the investors since incentivisation to industry and world-class infrastructure support simultaneously will help in bringing down the cost of production significantly.
- These schemes along with the liberal FDI policy in these sectors and an effective corporate tax rate of about 17% (including surcharge and cess) will give a competitive edge to India in the selected products vis-à-vis other economies.
Key Accomplishments and Action Plan of Sustainable Growth Pillar under India–US Strategic Energy Partnership
(Topic: India’s relation with other countries)
In June 2017, both the countries reinforced the strategic importance of bilateral energy cooperation, through the announcement of a new US–India Strategic Energy Partnership (SEP)
The India–US Strategic Energy Partnership has four pillars:
- Oil and Gas
- Power and Energy Efficiency
- Renewable Energy
- Sustainable Growth
The Sustainable Growth pillar is being co-chaired by NITI Aayog and USAID. Considerable progresses in all three areas of the Sustainable Growth pillar were noted as below:
- Energy data management: An India Energy Dashboard, which was launched in 2015, has been revamped with the provisioning of data input online and through API integration. To enrich the exercise, NITI Aayog created eight sub-groups on energy demand and supply sectors. India and US agencies will cooperate to build a robust energy dashboard.
- Energy modelling: Two exercises carried out on energy-water nexus and decarburization of transportation sector have highlighted key issues and provided policy advice. NITI Aayog and USAID jointly launched India Energy Modeling Forum on 2 July 2020. The forum will engage US and Indian researchers, knowledge partners, think tanks, both national and international, and government agencies and departments for modeling and long-term energy planning exercise.
- Low carbon technologies: Both sides agreed to engage through concerned Government, related agencies, and private players for the promotion of low carbon technologies in India.
Setting the Stage for Future Partnerships
- Both sides will continue to strengthen the Energy Data Management system to improve energy data availability, accessibility, and consistency with more intensive collaboration with US agencies.
- The Sustainable Growth pillar will support the India Energy Modeling Forum by facilitating collaborative engagement with the Modeling Forum at Stanford University and will also initiate new multi-team joint research studies to support energy and environmental decision-making under the forum.
- It was recognized that Covid-19 is a challenge to the human spirit and to the partnership between our countries. However, challenges always bring opportunities to devise new ways and find innovative solutions.
- Both sides will adapt and continue to focus on sharing best practices and new solutions under the sustainable growth pillar for the benefit of India and the US. This has set the stage for building on the successful strategic energy partnership between India and the US.
India-European Union Agreement on Scientific and Technological Cooperation renewed for next five years (2020-2025)
(Topic: India’s relation with other countries)
India and European Union have renewed its Agreement on Scientific and Technological Cooperation for the next five years (2020-2025). This has been done by exchange of Note Verbale between two sides. The Agreement was initially signed in on 23 November 2001 and renewed two times in past in 2007 and 2015.
- This will expand the cooperation in scientific and technological research, strengthen the conduct of cooperative activities in areas of common interest and application of the results of such cooperation to their economic and social benefit.
- In the last 5 years, the level of co-investment on India-EU Research Technology Development Projects for addressing societal challenges such as affordable healthcare, water, energy, food & nutrition has been stepped up resulted in several technologies, patents development, their gainful utilization, joint research publications, sharing of research facility and, exchange of scientists and students from both sides.
- The cooperation has been focused on water, green transport, e-mobility, clean energy, circular economy, bio-economy, health, and ICT. Additional areas, such as climate change, sustainable urban development, manufacturing, advanced materials, nanotechnologies and biotechnology, food processing, and ocean research may also be considered in future endeavours.
The EU and India are at the forefront of human development and innovation.
- For India, addressing the basic needs of its people, including through frugal innovation, and excelling in high-tech markets are twin objectives.
- Both areas offer mutually beneficial opportunities for EU-India cooperation.
- Increased exchanges between students, researchers, and professionals would benefit both sides. India and the EU share a mutual interest in reciprocal mobility of talent.
- The mobility of researchers and innovators would be promoted in both directions.
The EU-India cooperation should also foster innovation by promoting networking between EU and Indian innovators, start-ups, incubators, and accelerators, by setting up joint platforms, both offline and virtual, and engaging in coaching, training and staff exchanges. Highly qualified workers could be integrated into Indian and EU-led innovation systems industries and help maintain technology-based leadership and sharing of best practices, internationalization of SMEs, and contributing in the global value chain.
Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant-3 in Gujarat
This is a landmark event in India’s domestic civilian nuclear programme given that KAPP-3 is the country’s first 700 MWe (megawatt electric) unit, and the biggest indigenously developed variant of the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR).
- The PHWRs, which use natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, are the mainstay of India’s nuclear reactor fleet. Until now, the biggest reactor size of indigenous design was the 540 MWe PHWR, two of which have been deployed in Tarapur, Maharashtra.
- The operationalisation of India’s first 700MWe reactor marks a significant scale-up in technology, both in terms of optimisation of its PHWR design — the new 700MWe unit addresses the issue of excess thermal margins — and an improvement in the economies of scale, without significant changes to the design of the 540 MWe reactor. (‘Thermal margin’ refers to the extent to which the operating temperature of the reactor is below its maximum operating temperature.)
- Four units of the 700MWe reactor are currently being built at Kakrapar (KAPP-3 and 4) and Rawatbhata (RAPS-7 and 8). The 700MWe reactors will be the backbone of a new fleet of 12 reactors to which the government accorded administrative approval and financial sanction in 2017, and which are to be set up in fleet mode.
- As India works to ramp up its existing nuclear power capacity of 6,780 MWe to 22,480 MWe by 2031, the 700MWe capacity would constitute the biggest component of the expansion plan. Currently, nuclear power capacity constitutes less than 2% of the total installed capacity of 3,68,690 MW (end-January 2020).
Science and Technology
A. Comet NEOWISE
Comet Neowise officially known as C/2020F3 is the brightest comet that can be seen in the sky and will be visible across the globe as it is closest to the earth these days. The Neowise, once disappears will be visible only after 6800 years.
‘Comet Neowise’ was first spotted by NASA’s spacecraft mission Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) on 27 March 2020 and hence the name NEOWISE.
What are comets?
Comet is an icy small body which consists mostly of rocky materials, dust and ice. As they come closer to the sun there is evaporation of volatile contents from these comets. When they start melting, the particles start glowing by the reflected sunlight. This makes the ‘dust tail’ of Comets.
India also has a similar space venture Aditya-L1 mission which is due to go up in the sky, to study the corona of the Sun.
B. Body fluids can provide clue for early detection of colon cancer
Colorectal cancer that affects the large intestine (colon) and rectum is the 5th leading cause of cancer death in India, mainly because late detection minimizes chances of recovery.
In the last decade, the country has witnessed a rapid increase in the rate of colorectal cancer among younger people due to poor dietary habits, lack of physical activity, obesity, increased alcohol consumption, and chronic smoking.
- The current detection methods need invasive biopsies, and subsequent evaluation requires special expertise. The delay in the timely detection of the disease limits access to rapid and affordable treatment.
- Extracellular vesicles (EVs) embody molecular information about the parent malignant tissue and hold a huge potential for convenient cancer diagnostics. The team has established that the evaluation of cancer cell-secreted EVs from body fluid (for example, blood, urine, stooletc.) and capturing clinical information without biopsying the tumour could be an effective and non-invasive alternative method of cancer detection.
- They used Atomic Force Microscope that utilizes a nanoscale finger to probe Hyaluronan on the EVs’ surface from colon cancer cells. They have also performed spectroscopy experiments (FT-IR, CD, and RAMAN) to find the characteristic signatures of HA, and both the data sets highly correlate with each other.
C. A device for long-term monitoring of cells & tissues and study drug delivery effects, tissue repair and regeneration
Preservation of secondary cell lines, primary cells, and primary tissue explants outside the incubator environment for long hours and continuous monitoring of the growth and electrophysiology recording for controlled drug delivery is a major requirement.
- The need for monitoring of growth patterns of cells over long hours on desired substrates and the functionality of an explant-tissue in a non-vivo environment in their laboratory triggered a team from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) an autonomous institute under the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India to come up with a suitable device.
- The researchers implemented a 3D-Fluidic device (3D-FD), which has an auto bubble guidance geometry which allows controlled medium exchange to maintain the metabolites without a trace of fluid leakage and bubble formation. The auto bubble guidance geometry (Helical pathway) and controlled delivery of the medium make it efficient as a drug screening platform and unique in the current scenario of Neuro-Technology. It has been accepted for publishing by the journal Biofabrication, and a patent for the device has also been applied recently.
D. India-Russia Joint Technology Assessment and Accelerated Commercialization Programme
The Department of Science and Technology has launched the India-Russia Joint Technology Assessment and Accelerated Commercialization Programme in partnership with the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises (FASIE) of the Russian Federation.
- The programme will connect Indian, and Russian Science & Technology (S&T) led SMEs and Start-ups for joint R&D for technology development and for cross-country technology adaptation. This initiative will create an ecosystem for Indian and Russian S&T-led SMEs and startups to come together to develop new technological solutions.
- Over a period of two years, the Department of Science and Technology will fund up to INR 15 Crores to ten Indian SMEs/Start-ups and FASIE will provide similar funding to the Russian projects. The programme will provide access to partial public funding for jointly selected projects with the participation of at least one start-up/SME from India and one SME from Russia. The selected projects will be required to bear partial funding as well, either through own funds or alternate sources of funding. In addition to the financial support, the teams will also be supported through capacity building, mentorship and business development.
E. MoES-Knowledge Resource Centre Network (KRCNet) Launched
Under the Digital India initiative of Government of India, Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)aims to develop a World-Class Knowledge Resource Centre Network (KRCNet).
- Establish a Total Quality Management (TQM) system by securing ISO certification for documenting MoESknowledge resources, its maintenance, easy retrieval and dissemination.
- Collect, collate, analyze, index, store and disseminate the intellectual resources, products and project outputs available in MoES headquarter and its institutes.
- Develop and maintain an up-to-date meta-data of the print & digital resources available in MoES headquarter and MoES institutes, including MoES services.
- Provide 24X7 access to the subscribed knowledge contents through the KRCNet portal.
- Application of information analytical tools & techniques like bibliometrics, scientometrics, big-data analytics, social media analytics etc., for policy formulation, report preparation and information dissemination.
- Periodically organize training workshops to popularize usage of electronic journals, databases, digital products, data analytics etc.
Prelims oriented News:
West Garo Hills: Meghalaya
The “Test, Track, Treat” strategy for COVID-19
- WHO has advised that a country needs 140 tests/day/ million population.
- Through the coordinated efforts, India’s testing per million (TPM) has increased to 10421. This has helped in early detection and timely and effective clinical management of COVID-19 cases.
- The State of Goa is testing highest at 1333 tests per day per million.
- The confirmation rate or Positivity Rate for India is continuously reducing and currently stands at 8.07%.
Zoram Mega Food Park: Mizoram
- Under the Mega Food Park Scheme, Government of India provides financial assistance upto Rs. 50.00 Crore per Mega Food Park project.
- Presently, 18 Mega Food Park Projects are under implementation in various states and 19 Mega Food Parks have already become functional in the States.
- 6 of them are in the North eastern region. 2 MFPs in North eastern Region are operational at Assam and Mizoram.
Manodarpan: An initiative under Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, to provide psychosocial support to students for their Mental Health and well-being
World Class State of the Art Honey Testing Lab inaugurated: Anand, Gujarat
- Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry launched the portal for a loan scheme for street vendors.
- Name of the loan scheme for street vendors – Pradhan Mantri Street Vendors’ AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) scheme.
- The portal — pmsvanidhi.mohua.gov.in — provides an “integrated end-to-end IT interface to users for availing benefits under the scheme.
- Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs launched the scheme on June 1st.
- The vendors can avail a working capital loan of up to Rs. 10,000.
- It will be repayable in monthly instalments in the tenure of one year.
- On timely/early repayment of the loan, an interest subsidy at 7% per annum will be credited to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through Direct Benefit Transfer on six monthly basis.
- There will be no penalty on early repayment of loan.
- Over 50 lakh people, including vendors, hawkers, thelewalas, etc. are likely to benefit from this scheme.
- Street vendors from peri- urban/ rural areas have become beneficiaries of an urban livelihood programme for the first time.
- MFIs/ NBFCs/ SHG Banks have been allowed in a scheme for the urban poor due to their ground level presence for the first time.
2 Mega Watt Solar Power Plant Inaugurated at Naval Station Karanja, Uran
- Installed at Naval Station Karanja and is one of the largest solar plants in the region.
- The Solar Plant comprises of 100% indigenously developed solar panels, tracking tables and inverters. The plant is grid interconnected utilising the state of art single axis sun tracking technology with computerised monitoring & control.
- The project is a significant step by the Indian Navy towards harnessing Solar energy and use of renewable source of energy for meeting the power supply requirement of Naval Station.
India and Indonesia agree to further enhance bilateral defence cooperation
- The defence cooperation between India and Indonesia has witnessed an upswing in the recent years, which is in consonance with the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the two sides
- Both the countries have agreed to further enhance the bilateral defence cooperation in mutually agreed areas.
- Potential areas of cooperation in the field of defence industries and defence technology were also identified by the two countries.
Kumhar Sashaktikaran Yojana
- To bring back the potters’ community to the mainstream by providing potters with modern equipment and training. This will help to reconnect them with the society and revive their art.
- Under the scheme, the KVIC also provides equipment like blunger and pug mills for mixing clay for making pottery products.
- The machines have eliminated drudgery from the process of pottery making and resulted in higher income of potters by 7 to 8 times.
The Mystical Triangle- Maheshwar, Mandu & Omkareshwar
Maheshwar or Mahishmati
Madhya Pradesh – 90 kms away from Indore city
- The city got its name after Lord Shiva/ Maheshwara, it also finds a mention in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharatha.
- The presenters described in detail the life & times of Queen Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar.
- It was the capital of the Malwa during the Maratha Holkar reign till 6 January 1818, when the capital was shifted to Indore by Malhar Rao Holkar III.
- In the late eighteenth century, Maheshwar served as the capital of the great Maratha queen Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar.
- Baneshwar temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiva is one of the must-see temples of Maheshwar especially during sunsets. Narmada aarti is performed after sunset at Narmada ghat.
- Ahilya Devi invited master weavers from Surat and South India to weave sarees that are unique from the existing ones. In 1760, she sent for the famed weavers of Surat to enrich her kingdom with fine cloth – something worthy of the royal family. Under the princely state the weavers arts flourished and specialized into the present day Maheshwari cloth. Once an all-cotton weave – in the 1950’s silk started being used in the wrap and slowly became the norm. Rehwa Society was founded in 1979, is a non-profit organisation working for the welfare of weavers of maheshwar.
- Has 33 deities and 108 impressive shivling in divine form and this is the only Jyotirlinga which is situated on the north bank of Narmada.
- Omkareshwar is a spiritual town in Madhya Pradesh, 78kms away from Indore.
- It is also believed that Lord Shiva comes here to rest everyday considering this a special aarti called Shayan aarti is performed everyday at 8:30pm in the evening and arrange game of dice for Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvathi.
- Located in Dhar district of State of Madhya Pradesh is also known by the name of Mandavgarh, Shadiabad (City of Joy).
- The Fort in Mandu is spread over an area of 47 sq km and the fort wall is 64 kms.
- Mandu is mainly known for the love story of Sultan Baz Bahadur and Rani Roopmati. Once out hunting, Baz Bahadur chanced upon a shepherdess frolicking and singing with her friends. Smitten by both her enchanting beauty and her melodious voice, he begged Roopmati to accompany him to his capital. Roopmati agreed to go to Mandu on the condition that she would live in a palace within sight of her beloved and venerated river, Narmada. Thus was built the Rewa Kund at Mandu.
- On knowing about Roopmati’s beauty and sweet voice, Mughals decided to invade Manduand capture both Baz Bahadur and Roopmati. Mandu was easily defeated and when Mughal forces marched towards fort, Roopmati poisoned herself to avoid capture.
- Baz Bahadur’s Palace built in 16th-century is famous for its large courtyards encompassed by large halls and high terraces. It is situated below Roopmati’s Pavilion and can be seen from the pavilion.
Personality in News
Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- Father of Indian Unrest
- Popularly known as Lokmanya, and dedicated his life for the cause of “Purna Swaraj” (complete self-rule)
- One of the founders of the Fergusson College in Pune
- One of the first advocates of Swaraj or self-rule. He gave the slogan, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.”
- Along with Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, he was called the ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’ trio of extremist leaders
- One of the founders of the All India Home Rule League, along with Annie Besant and G S Khaparde, and served as its president and in 1916 he concluded the Lucknow Pact with Mohammed Ali Jinnah, which provided for Hindu-Muslim unity in the nationalist struggle
- Newspaper: Kesari in Marathi and Mahratta in English
Qn: Compare and contrast the nationalism of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
Chandra Shekhar Azad
- Popularly known as ‘Azad’; It is believed that on being presented before a magistrate, he gave his name as “Azad” (The Free), his father’s name as “Swatantrata” (Independence) and his residence as “Jail”. From that day he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar Azad among the people.
- Became extremely popular after Kakori Rail Dacoity in 1925 and assassination of policeman John Saunders in year 1928
- The Colt pistol of Chandra Shekhar Azad is displayed at the Prayagraj Museum
- The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy which took place in 1919 was when he decided to join the Non-Cooperation movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
- He was the chief strategist of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).
- “Reform is not only a Regulation, Reform is a Resolution”
- Role of Journalism, Media and Cinema in Nation and Generation Building