1. What role do temperate cyclones play in causing precipitation in different parts of India? Explain.
भारत के विभिन्न भागों में समशीतोष्ण चक्रवात वर्षा के कारक के रूप में क्या भूमिका निभाते हैं? समझाएं।
Demand of the question:
It expects students to write in detail the role of temperate cyclone in causing precipitation in different parts of India.
The cyclonic system developing in the mid and high latitude i.e. 35° latitude and 65° latitude in both hemispheres, beyond the tropics is called the Temperate Cyclones or Extra Tropical Cyclones.
Due to these cyclones, highly variable and cloudy weather is observed in temperate zone. It is in these latitude zones that the polar and tropical air masses meet and form polar fronts, most of these cyclone form wavelike twist i.e. wave cyclone.
Especially with respect to India, temperate cyclones are observed in the form of disturbances known as ‘western disturbance’.
- Temperate cyclone is a common weather phenomena in India. Temperate cyclone is an extra tropical cyclone originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent.
- They are the cause of the most winter and pre-monsoon season rainfall across North-West India (such as Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh).
- Temperate cyclones, specifically the ones in winter, bring moderate to heavy rain in low-lying areas and heavy snow to mountainous areas of the Indian Subcontinent.
- This phenomenon is usually associated with cloudy sky, higher night temperatures and unusual rain.
- This precipitation during the winter season has great importance in agriculture particularly for rabi crops including wheat. It is estimated that India gets close to 5-10% of its total annual rainfall from temperate cyclones.
- Also, Saffron cultivation along with tea cultivation in the foothills of Himalayas is depending on the western disturbance.
- Over the Indo-Gangetic plains, they occasionally bring cold wave conditions and dense fog.
- Western disturbances very less likely cause precipitation in the southern i.e. peninsular part of India.
Most of the North and North-western India’s Rabi crops yield better results because of the Temperate cyclones. Temperate cyclones provide the rain for most of the North and North-western India and fill the vacuum created by South west monsoon and also play a pivotal role in water need for human consumption and agriculture sector.