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1. The concept of cybernetics explains the behaviors of social systems that are extended from machine systems. Elaborate
10 marks (150 words)
A direct question, we need to explain how Cybernetics brings some of the features of machine system to Social system. Here, just explaining the word Cybernetics makes half of the answer.
From Paper 2
Bring in examples and case studies from the Indian Organizations and various departments of Indian government.
Norbert Wiener defines the word Cybernetics as the phenomenon of Control and Communication in humans and machines. This very definition of his reveals that, the origin of Cybernetics was from the mechanical organization and in the nervous system of human beings.
Firstly, Cybernetics brings the command and control part of machine systems into the Social systems. However, in the social systems the command and control gets morphed as communication.
Ex: Consider a robot which is a machine system. Here, the control signals are sent in terms of commands from the central processing system to other motor parts.
In the same way Cybernetics also propounds that, every part of an organization should communicate well with proper means and channels. This improves the coordination among the different organs, leading to Synergetic and multiplied outputs.
Secondly, Cybernetics also takes its origin from the mechanism of feedback. Feedback, however, is a concept of Servo-mechanism wherein, a part of the output of a machine is fed back to the input in-order to multiply the force of the output. And, Wiener transformed it into the social organization. He brought it as a means through which, the organization can get to know the level of satisfaction of its clients.
Ex: When Alibaba was launched to the market. It failed to pick up in the initial times. However, the enterprise ran its business in spite of incurring losses. The reason was because; it used to get gratitudinal feedbacks from the clients.
In India the feedback mechanism is being facilitated in almost all the government organizations. 2nd ARC mentions Monitoring and Feedback as some of the important features in Citizen Centric administration.
Thirdly, Wiener has also taken a cue from the human nervous system (the most complex machine) to conceptualize the Cybernetics. He visualized how the human eye scans an image and provides the input to the brain. And brain, which further processes the input and provides output through the motor organs. This was again transformed to the organization systems.
And hence the input, throughput and output concepts of systems theory were born. Further, coordination between these input, throughput and output is the Cybernetics.
Ex: If we consider the Parliament of India as a system. The public appeals act as the input, the debates and discussions inside the house as the through put, and the enacted acts become the outputs.
Here, the way MPs pick up the public appeal, the way government receives the opinions of the MPs inside the house; and the way publics receive the enacted law are the Cybernetics.
Thus we can say that by bringing control, communication and feedback to the social organization, Wiener made a Human use of humans and machines.
To put it in the words of Ashby” another origin of systems theory came from the Cybernetics systems theory of Mechanical Engineering”.
2. Regulatory organizations are the bulwarks against organization’s Negative-Entropy. Comment
15 marks (250 words)
Here the question demands to explain how regulatory organizations can avoid the disintegration of organizations. First, we have to briefly define the entropy, and then proceed with the answer.
From Paper 2
Bring in some of the regulatory organizations of India. And to maintain the paper specificity, it is better to bring in some private and the international regulatory bodies as well.
“Negative-Entropy” can be defined as the measure of disorder, uncertainty and consumed energy in a system. This results in degradation and deterioration of the organization, if it is left to creep in without any check.
Entropy can sneak into an organization due to various factors Viz, internal factors, market factors, personal factors, ecological factors etc. Hence, it can be deduced that, any cause which leads to financial, personnel and other losses can reduce the motivation of the employees of an organization. And, this in turn can decay the organization from within leading to Negative-Entropy.
Given the fact that the Negative-Entropy deteriorates an organization, many arrangements were thought out by the scholars to abate this Entropy. And the regulatory bodies are one among them.
Thus, several regulatory bodies have been established by government and the private entities to cater to the internal and external factors that cause Entropy.
Regulatory bodies that control the internal factors:
Regulating the day to day functions of organization: some of the organizations have set up separate units to regulate the daily business of their enterprises. These units act as communicators and coordinators; and they swing into action only in cases of glitches in the functioning of the organization.
These units, on their part, make sure that the Cybernetics of the organization is not damaged.
Ex: Trouble shooting units in companies, RBI in the Indian economic system.
Regulation of personnel: There are regulatory bodies which look into the issues of the personnel in an organization as well. These bodies cater to transfers, postings, promotions, pay scale and the disciplinary actions taken on the employees.
This is required to strike a strike a balance between the rights and duties of the employees. And also to instill discipline in the organization;
Ex: Labor boards, Whitley councils, Negotiations boards etc. In the Indian government it is the DoPT.
Motivation and morale: Entropy can readily set in, if the human resource of the organization looses motivation to work. Hence, there is a necessary for a dedicated body to boost the morale and motivation of the workers.
Ex: Man-Machine teams and the human resource teams monitor both the technical expertise (updating this is necessary to avoid the skills of workers becoming obsolete), and the morale of the employees. Central Vigilance Commission helps in boosting the morale of honest officers in India.
Safety of workers: In case of hazardous functions the organization has to ensure the safety of workers. Else, there are chances of employees quitting the job, leading to decaying of the organization.
Ex: Director General of Mines safety monitors the safety measures taken by the mining firms.
Regulatory bodies that cater to external factors:
Quality of goods and services: is the most important factor that offsets Negative-entropy in an organization. Because, lack of quality implodes the organization as it loses out to its competitors. Hence, a separate regulation mechanism is necessary to monitor the quality of the goods and services produced.
Ex: International Standards Institute, Bureau of Indian Standards, etc.
Safety norms: In case of food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Release of unsafe products into the market not only harm the consumers, but also harms the market for the organization which in turns hurts its prospects i.e. the positive entropy.
Ex: Regulatory bodies like Drug Control General of India, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, etc, monitor the safety of both the products and the consumers.
Consumer satisfaction: In this competitive market, any negative feedback from clients can lead to huge losses, which in turn hurts the business of the organization. And business is the main source for all and sundry of an organization, forget the entropy. Thus it is necessary to regulate the hospitality and the front end services of the organization also.
Ex: Global Consumer Satisfaction System at the global level, and Front end teams and Costumer Care Coordination teams in the organizational level.
Market norms: Organizations also decay due to market forces. Hence, it is essential to regulate the market so that, any mal-practices that are encountered are nipped out in the bud.
Ex: SEBI, TRAI, etc.
Lastly, we can conclude that the regulatory bodies act as a great wall, that block the entropy to set-in inside an organisation. They perform all round functions of standardisation, implementation of rules and norms, regulation, monitoring, etc. And also, they work both inside and outside the organisation.
Damodaran Committee States that, ‘strict but humane regulation helps in improving the business environment for the corporate world’.