PRESS INFORMATION BUREAU (PIB) IAS UPSC – 21st September to 27th September – 2020
Rules relaxed for divorced daughters to receive Family Pension
(Topic: Women empowerment)
Rules have been relaxed for divorced daughters to receive Family Pension and now a daughter will be entitled to receive the Family Pension even if the divorce had not finally taken place but the divorce petition had been filed by her during the lifetime of her deceased parent employee/pensioner.
The earlier Rule provided for payment of Family Pension to a divorced daughter only if the divorce had taken place during the lifetime of deceased parent pensioner or his spouse. The new circular will not only bring ease in the life of pension receiving individuals but also ensure respectable and equitable rights for the divorced daughters in the society.
Orders have also been issued for grant of Family Pension to a Divyang child or sibling even if the Disability Certificate is produced after the death of the pensioner parent but the disability had occurred before the death of the parents.
All Pension Disbursing Banks have been instructed to provide doorstep Life Certificate to those pensioners who are unable to visit the bank.
Historic reform in Medical Education: National Medical Commission (NMC) constituted
(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.)
Historic reform in the field of medical education has been effected by the Union Government with the constitution of the National Medical Commission (NMC), along with four Autonomous Boards. With this, the decades old institution of the Medical Council of India (MCI) stands abolished.
- Along with NMC, the four Autonomous Boards ofUG and PG Medical Education Boards, Medical Assessment and Rating Board, and Ethics and Medical Registration Board have also been constituted to help the NMC in day to day functioning.
- This historic reform will steer medical education towards a transparent, qualitative and accountable system. The basic change that has happened is that the Regulator is now ‘selected’ on merits, as opposed to an ‘elected’ Regulator.
- Men and Women with impeccable integrity, professionalism, experience and stature have been now placed at the helm to steer the medical education reforms further.
Lok Sabha passes 3 Historic and path breaking Labour Codes
(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.)
The 3 bills which were passed in the Lok Sabha today are
1. Industrial Relations Code, 2020
- New conditions for legal strike – no person employed in an industrial establishment shall go on strike without a 60-day notice and during the pendency of proceedings before a Tribunal and sixty days after the conclusion of such proceedings. Earlier such restrictions applied only to public utility services.
- Raised the threshold for requirement of a standing order — rules of conduct for workmen employed in industrial establishments — from the existing 100 to 300 workers
- Reskilling Fund – To set up a re-skilling fund for training of retrenched workers with contribution of the employer of an amount equal to 15 days last drawn by the worker.
2. Code on Occupational Safety, Health & Working Conditions Code, 2020
- To employ women in all establishments for all types of work. They can also work at night, that is, beyond 7 PM and before 6 AM subject to the conditions relating to safety, holiday, working hours and their consent
- To Promote Formalisation: Issuing of appointment letter mandatorily by the employer of an establishment to promote formalisation in employment
- Inclusion of inter-state migrant workers in the definition of worker: Inter-state migrant workers are defined as the worker who has come on his own from one state and obtained employment in another state, earning up to Rs 18,000 a month.
- The proposed definition makes a distinction from the present definition of only contractual employment.
- Portability Benefits: An Inter-State Migrant Worker has been provided with the portability to avail benefits in the destination State in respect of ration and availing benefits of building and other construction worker cess
- However, the Code has dropped the earlier provision for temporary accommodation for workers near worksites.
- It has though proposed a journey allowance — a lump sum amount of fare to be paid by the employer for to and fro journey of the worker to his/her native place from the place of his/her employment
3. Social Security Code, 2020
- National Social Security Board which shall recommend to the central government for formulating suitable schemes for different sections of unorganised workers, gig workers and platform workers
- No more ambiguities: The bill has defined various terms like “career centre”, “aggregator”, “gig worker”, “platform worker”, “wage ceiling” , etc.
- Social security for gig workers: Also, aggregators employing gig workers will have to contribute 1-2 per cent of their annual turnover for social security of workers
These bills are part of Government’s earnest desire to bring much needed labour welfare reforms in the country which has not been done for the last 73 years.
What are the concerns raised over the new labour codes?
- Dilutes rights of Workers: Workers in small establishments (with up to 300 workers) will have their rights watered down with no protection of trade unions, labour laws.
- Workers safety safeguards diluted: The new rules will enable companies to introduce arbitrary service conditions for workers.
- Corporate Friendly: The new rules provides more flexibility to employers for hiring and firing workers without government permission
- Restricts Freedom of Speech: Restrictions on strikes and demonstrations is akin to assault on the freedom of industrial actions.
- Ambiguity about reskilling Fund: The Code lacks clarity on the substantive and procedural aspects of reskilling Fund which will fizzle out like the National Renewal Fund in the 1990s
- Women’s Safety: Allowing women to work during night time inspite of various safeguards imposed may increase their vulnerability to sexual abuse.
National Biopharma Mission
(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.)
Aim: To transform the health standards of the country through affordable product development and bring 5-7 biopharmaceutical products closer to market.
Objectives and goals of the Mission are:
- Specific Product development under vaccines, biosimilars and medical devices
- Building shared infrastructure for product testing, characterization and manufacturing
- Promoting scientific research through establishment of translational research consortia and development of novel biopharmaceuticals and devices
- Skill development though trainings
- Creating and enhancing technology transfer and intellectual property management.
The Mission is supporting small and medium enterprises for biopharmaceutical product development, enhancing industry academia interlinkages and providing opportunities to translate knowledge into products/technologies for vaccines, biotherapeutics, devices and diagnostics. The indigenous manufacturing is promoted through the supported shared facilities for process optimization, clinical grade manufacturing of Biologics, Analytical testing labs, cell line repository, prototyping facilities, large animal testing facilities and medTech zone for manufacturing devices and diagnostics at large scale. These high capital facilities provide easy access to equipment and infrastructure thus encouraging indigenous manufacturing. Technology transfer offices have been established to support technology transfer and support entrepreneurship.
Financial and mentorship support has been provided to industry and academia for indigenous product development. This includes projects on development of components of upstream and downstream biologics manufacturing, such as engineered cell lines, media, resins and bioreactors which are currently in-licensed, requiring huge capital. To boost innovation, Mission is also supporting development of novel biologics, novel vaccines and medical devices like MRI, ventilators, diagnostic probes and Medical grade camera.
PM addresses United Nations General Assembly
(Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.)
Seventy-five years ago an institution was created for the entire world for the first time in human history and a new hope arose from the horrors of war.
- Being a founding signatory of the UN Charter, India was part of that noble vision which reflected India’s own philosophy of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ – which sees all creation as a family.
- While much has been achieved, the original Mission remains unfulfilled. And the far-reaching declaration that we are adopting today acknowledges that work still needs to be done: in preventing conflict, in ensuring development, in addressing climate change, in reducing inequalities, and in leveraging digital technologies. The declaration also acknowledges the need for reform of the United Nations itself.
- Without comprehensive reforms, the UN faces a crisis of confidence and today’s challenges cannot be fought with outdated structures. For today’s interconnected world, we need a reformed multilateralism: that reflects today’s realities; gives voice to all stakeholders; addresses contemporary challenges; and focuses on human welfare. India looks forward to working with all other nations towards this end.
India-Sri Lanka’s Virtual Bilateral Summit
(Topic: India and its neghbourhood.)
Discussed bilateral relations and regional & international issues of mutual concern
- Both leaders agreed that the current situation presented a fresh opportunity to give added impetus to bilateral relations. India reaffirmed its continued commitment for all possible support to Sri Lanka for minimising the health and economic impact of the pandemic.
- Recognizing that BIMSTEC is an important platform for regional cooperation linking South Asia with South East Asia, both leaders agreed to work together to ensure a successful BIMSTEC Summit to be hosted under the Chairmanship of Sri Lanka.
- Sri Lanka welcomed India’s grant assistance of US million for promotion of Buddhist ties between the two countries. The grant will assist in deepening people-to-people linkages between the two countries in the sphere of Buddhism including inter alia through construction/renovation of Buddhist monasteries, capacity development, cultural exchanges, archaeological cooperation, reciprocal exposition of The Buddha’s relics, strengthening engagement of Buddhist scholars and clergy etc.
- India called on the Government of Sri Lanka to address the aspirations of the Tamil people for equality, justice, peace and respect within a united Sri Lanka, including by carrying forward the process of reconciliation with the implementation of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka. PM Mahinda Rajapaksa expressed the confidence that Sri Lanka will work towards realizing the expectations of all ethnic groups, including Tamils, by achieving reconciliation nurtured as per the mandate of the people of Sri Lanka and implementation of the Constitutional provisions.
For imparting further impetus to the bilateral relationship, the two leaders agreed to:
- Enhance cooperation to combat terrorism and drug trafficking including in the fields of intelligence, information sharing, de-radicalization and capacity building.
- Continue the fruitful and efficient development partnership in accordance with the priority areas identified by the Government and people of Sri Lanka and to further broad base the island wide engagement under the Memorandum of Understanding for Implementation of High Impact Community Development Projects (HICDP) for the period 2020-2025.
- Work together to expeditiously complete construction of 10,000 housing units in the plantation areas, which was announced during the visit of Prime Minister Modi to Sri Lanka in May 2017.
- Facilitate an enabling environment for trade and investment between the two countries and to deepen integration of supply chains in the backdrop of the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Work towards early realization of infrastructure and connectivity projects including in the sectors of Ports and Energy through close consultations as per the Bilateral Agreements and MoUs, and strong commitment towards a mutually beneficial development cooperation partnership between the two countries.
- Deepen cooperation in renewable energy with particular emphasis on solar projects under the US million Line of Credit from India.
- Strengthen technical cooperation in the areas of agriculture, animal husbandry, science & technology, health care and AYUSH (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy) as well as skill development by increased training of professionals thereby realizing the full potential of the demographic dividend in both the countries.
- Further strengthen people-to-people ties by exploring opportunities in the field of civilizational linkages and common heritage such as Buddhism, Ayurveda and Yoga. Government of India will facilitate visit of a delegation of Buddhist pilgrims from Sri Lanka in the inaugural international flight to the sacred city of Kushinagar, which has recently been announced as an International Airport recognizing its significance in Buddhism.
- Facilitate tourism by enhancing connectivity and by early establishment of an air bubble between the two countries to resume travel, bearing in mind threat posed by Covid-19 pandemic and to take all necessary preventative measures.
- Continue engagement to address the issues related to fishermen through regular consultation and bilateral channels according to the existing frameworks and shared goals including the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
- Strengthen cooperation between armed forces of the two sides including through mutual exchange of personnel visits, maritime security cooperation and support to Sri Lanka in the spheres of defence and security.
India, Denmark sign MoU on Intellectual Property cooperation
(Topic: Bilateral relations between India and Denmark)
This MoU will go a long way in fostering the cooperation between India and Denmark, and provide opportunities to both countries to learn from the experience of each other, especially in terms of best practices followed in the other country. It will be a landmark step forward in India’s journey towards becoming a major player in global innovation and further the objectives of National IPR Policy, 2016.
The MoU aims at increasing IP co-operation between the two countries by way of:
- Exchange of best practices, experiences and knowledge on IP awareness among public, authorities, businesses and research and educational institution of both countries.
- Collaboration in training programmes, exchange of experts, technical exchanges and outreach activities.
- Exchange of information and best practices on processes for disposal of applications for patents, trademarks, industrial designs and Geographical Indications, as also the protection, enforcement and use of IP rights.
- Cooperation in the development of automation and implementation of modernization projects, new documentation and information systems in IP and procedures for management of IP.
- Cooperation to understand how Traditional Knowledge is protected; including the use of traditional knowledge related databases and awareness raising of existing IP systems.
Launch of Centralized Farm Machinery Performance Testing Portal
(Topic: Agricultural Marketing)
Developed by: Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare
Aim: To improve services of farm machinery testing institutions and bringing out transparency in the entire process of testing and evaluation of machines.
- Facilitate applying for testing of machinery online.
- Ensure Transparency in the entire processes of testing.
- Faster Feedback
- Help in Reducing testing Time
- Reduced Business Expenses of Agricultural Manufacturers
- Testing Efficiency Improvement
- Thoroughness in Testing
- Flexible Access – Officers concerned at Ministry and manufacturers can monitor testing activities from anywhere with internet access.
Agricultural mechanization is a central indispensable support to make farm operations efficient and productive. It contributes in increasing the efficiency and productivity of all direct as well as indirect inputs used in the crop production system besides, reduction in drudgery associated with various farm operations.
Parliament passes the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020
(Topic: Agricultural Marketing)
The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill 2020 with provisions to remove commodities like cereals, pulses, oilseeds, edible oils, onion and potatoes from the list of essential commodities was passed by Rajya Sabha.
The EC (Amendment) Bill 2020 aims to remove fears of private investors of excessive regulatory interference in their business operations. The freedom to produce, hold, move, distribute and supply will lead to harnessing of economies of scale and attract private sector/foreign direct investment into agriculture sector. It will help drive up investment in cold storages and modernization of food supply chain.
This bill will create a positive environment not only for farmers but also for consumers and investors. Legislation will help in more investment in cold storages, modernization of food supply chain, bringing price stability, create competitive market environment and prevent wastage of agri-produce.
This amendment will also help to achieve the government’s promise to double the farmer’s income by promoting investment in this sector and promote ease of doing business.
Indian Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe)
(Topic: Space and technology)
Government has launched the Indian Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe) to promote private investment and innovation in the space sector.
IN-SPACe will facilitate and support the Private Sector in the following ways:
- Provide technical support
- Share cash intensive facilities
- Allow to establish temporary facilities in DOS premises
- Allow to bid for requirements coming from NSIL
- Partner in science and space exploration missions
IN-SPACe is the Institutional and Regulatory mechanism established by Government to facilitate greater private participation. Financial provisions are not covered under this mechanism. Private players can participate in:
- Building satellites
- Building launch vehicles
- Carry out launches
- Develop Applications & provide space based services
- Develop subsystem and systems for space sector activities
Prelims oriented News
Vasa Ghana, Guduchi Ghana and Vasa-Guduchi Ghana: Elements that are being tested for therapeutic management of symptoms in Covid-19 positive cases by the Ministry of AYUSH
JIMEX 20: Bilateral Maritime Exercise Between Japan and India
AHSP Transfer of Pinaka Weapon System from DRDO to DGQA: Pinaka is a free flight artillery rocket system having a range of 37.5 km. Pinaka rockets are launched from a multi barrel rocket launcher which has capability to launch salvo of 12 rockets in 44 seconds.
Faceless Income Tax Appeals: All Income Tax appeals will be finalised in a faceless manner under the faceless ecosystem with the exception of appeals relating to serious frauds, major tax evasion, sensitive & search matters, International tax and Black Money Act.
- Part of “Transparent Taxation – Honoring the Honest”
- From e-allocation of appeal, e-communication of notice/ questionnaire, e-verification/e-enquiry to e-hearing and finally e-communication of the appellate order, the entire process of appeals will be online, dispensing with the need for any physical interface between the appellant and the Department.
- The Faceless Appeals system will include allocation of cases through Data Analytics and AI under the dynamic jurisdiction with central issuance of notices which would be having Document Identification Number (DIN).
Indigenous Manufacturing of Medical Equipments
India is 86% import-dependent on Medical Devices/equipments. The various segments of devices/equipments imported are Electronics Equipment, Surgical Instruments, Conusumable& Disposables, IVD Reagent and Implants.
Various schemes/initiatives have been formulated to promote domestic manufacturing of medical devices/equipments and attract large investment in the sector:
- National Biopharma Mission.
- DBT-AMTZ COMManD [Covid-19 Medtech Manufacturing Development] Consortia launched by Department of Biotechnology (DBT) with Andhra Pradesh Med-tech Zone (AMTZ).
- National Biomedical Resource Indigenisation Consortium constituted as a Public Private Partnership.
- BioNEST scheme of Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC).
- Production Linked Incentive Scheme for Promoting Domestic Manufacturing of Medical Devices.
- Scheme for “Promotion of Medical Devices Parks”
National Rural Health Mission
Launched to provide accessible, affordable and quality healthcare to the rural population, especially the vulnerable groups
- making the public health delivery system fully functional and accountable to the community
- human resources management
- community involvement
- rigorous monitoring & evaluation against standards
- convergence of health and related programmes from village level upwards
- innovations and flexible financing and also interventions for improving the health indicators
National Handicrafts Development Programme [NHDP]:
- Base Line Survey & Mobilization of Artisans under Ambedkar Hastshilp Vikas Yojana
- Design & Technology Up-gradation
- Human Resource Development
- Direct Benefit to Artisans
- Infrastructure and Technology Support
- Marketing Support & Services
- Research and Development
Comprehensive Handicrafts Cluster Development Scheme [CHCDS]:
- Mega Cluster
- Integrated Development and Promotion of Handicrafts Projects (Special Projects)
Rural Self Employment and Training Institutes (RSETIs), is a Bank-led initiative, enabling a trainee to take bank credit and start his/her own micro-enterprise.
- RSETI program is currently implemented through 585 RSETIs by 23 Leading Banks (both Public Sector and Private Sector as well as few Gramin Banks) in 33 States/UTs covering 566 districts in the country.
- Training in RSETI is being imparted for 61 courses aligned with National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF). Out of 61 courses as many as 38 following courses are exclusively suitable for women candidates for taking up-self-employment ventures after being trained in these courses.
Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP): a majorcredit-linked subsidy programme aimed at generating self-employment opportunities through establishment of micro-enterprises in the non-farm sector.Any individual above 18 years of age is eligible to avail benefits of the program.
Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH): Department of Agriculture Cooperation & Farmers Welfare is implementing Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) under which financial assistance is provided for various horticulture activities including setting up of cold storages.
Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana (PMKSY): Ministry of Food Processing Industries is implementing the Scheme for Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure as one of the component of Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana (PMKSY) with the objective of reducing post-harvest losses of horticulture & non-horticulture produce and providing remunerative price to farmers for their produce.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) was launched during 2015-16, by Central Government with an overarching vision to ensure access to some means of protective irrigation for all agricultural farms in the country, and to produce ‘Per Drop More Crop’, thus bringing much desired rural prosperity. Four components of PMKSY are –
- Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP)
- Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP)
- Per Drop More Crop
- Watershed Development
PMKSY not only focuses on creating sources for assured irrigation, but also creating protective irrigation by harnessing rain water at micro level through ‘Jal Sanchay’ and ‘Jal Sinchan’. PMKSY adopts State level planning and projectised execution that allows States to draw up their own irrigation development based on District Irrigation Plans and State Irrigation Plans.
New finding on Blazars—the brightest jets in the universe
- The short term optical flux stability detected in some of the brightest jets in the universe could provide clues to the processes close to black holes.
- Blazars are one of the most luminous and energetic objects in the universe powered by material falling onto a super-massive black hole at the center of the host galaxy – the luminosity being because of their a jet composed of ionized matter traveling at nearly the speed of light towards an observer (the Earth).
- Six scientists spanning over three countries— India, Serbia, and the USA studied some of the brightest blazers called TeV (Tera-electron Volt) blazars and found that they stand out as a semblance of stability of brightness among the blazar family in the short duration. While their brightness varies in the long duration, they maintain their brightness levels in short duration.
- Blazars are among one of the most favourite astronomical transient objects, and their study could provide clues to the processes happening close to the black hole, not visible through direct imaging.
Development of a new low cost method of upscaling most conductive material‘graphene’ while preserving its single layered properties
Graphene, the one-atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms, which is a boon for energy storage, coatings, sensors as well as superconductivity, is difficult to produce while retaining its single layered properties. A new low-cost method of upscaling production of graphene while preserving its single layered properties, developed by Indian scientists, may reduce the cost of producing this thinnest, strongest and most conductive material in the world.
Raman spectroscopy—a technique to understand whether a graphene species has single layer like behaviour arising because of no interlayer interaction and electron diffraction–a technique to study the morphology of the given twisted system. Observing fascinating properties of twisted multilayer graphene such as visible absorption band, efficient corrosion resistance, temperature-dependent transport, influencing the crystalline orientation of source material, helped the JNCASR team to understand the landscape of the given twisted multilayer graphene system.
- A miracle material, given its strength, electrical conductivity and elasticity
- Graphene is a form of carbon and a super-strong, ultra-light material discovered in 2004
- Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, each atom bound to its neighbours by chemical bonds.
- It enables flexible electronic components, enhances solar cell capacity, and promises to revolutionise batteries.
- It is a two-dimensional material and has good electrical conductivity.
- It is one of the thinnest but strongest materials tested so far.
- The best conductor of heat at room temperature and also the best conductor of electricity known
- For detecting Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) — a progressive brain disorder for which there is currently “no objective diagnostic test.”
- Widely used in making solar cells, light-emitting diodes, touch panels and smart windows. Graphene supercapacitors serve as energy storage devices with a capacity for faster charging and longer life span than traditional electrolytic batteries.
- Water filtration and purification, renewable energy, sensors, personalised healthcare and medicine, to name a few.
- Highly inert and so can act as a corrosion barrier between oxygen and water diffusion.
Qn: Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Graphene oxide’
- It is used in energy storage devices
- It is used in desalination of water
- It is not toxic and hazardous for the environment
Solution: All of the above
Qn: Which of the following statements are correct about the GraphAir technology?
- It is the process of making Graphene from Soya bean oil.
- It is a new process developed to clear heavy metal impurities from air using Graphene filters.
- It is the process of making graphene by collecting CO2 from ambient air.
- None of the above
- Scientists from Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have made world’s strongest material graphene commercially more viable by using soybean. They have developed a novel “GraphAir technology” which transforms soybean oil, a renewable, natural material into graphene films in a single step.
- Earlier, graphene was produced in a highly-controlled environment with explosive compressed gases that required long hours of operation at high temperatures and extensive vacuum processing. This production process was costly and was major roadblock in its commercialisation.
- The technology grows graphene film in ambient air with a natural precursor, making its production faster and simpler. Soybean oil breaks down into a range of carbon building units when heat is applied. It makes it essential for the synthesis of graphene films
Personality in News
- Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya
The key element was humanism in political thought. His thoughts are relevant in today’s circumstances in national life of India. He was a political leader but more than it, he was a fundamental political thinker. India’s 1947 independence is political independence but Pandit Upadhyay is one of those thinkers in India who exercised on Swaraj of ideas. It means decolonisation of ideas, i.e. decolonisation of Indian minds. India was free politically but ideologically, colonial hangover was there.
His relevance lies in the fact that in political, social and cultural discourse, he introduced basic concept of Indian philosophy.
For example- he propounded in 1950 that there should not be artificial differences between left and right. This concept is irrelevant for India. In 2016, in latin America and EU, political thinkers are deliberating that left and right distinctions are artificial and damaging political discourse. He conceptualised that politics can’t free from ethics.
Deendayal Upadhyay were known for his organisational skills as after death of Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, he managed Bhartiya Jan Sangh for 15 years.
Doctrine of integral humanism
According to Upadhyay ji, Integral Humanism is different from western ideologies. Most of western ideologies is based on materialism. They emphasise on development in economic term and eventually every individual is treated as economic man. His social contacts, his cultural milieu and special bent of mind is ignored in this theory. Economic without ethics and political discourse without morality are creating crisis in society. Therefore he propounded that every economic theory and policy should be in context of specialism, local tradition and nature and temperament of people. In Indian thought he said- dharm kaam arth moksh- all four are important. If there is balance between them, there is social equilibrium.
Dharma and religion are different in Indian context. Dharma is more related to morality of person in individual and collective life. It is less about religion. But religion in western countries is more concerned about sects. There is difference between sects and dharma. No society can live without dharma but can live without religion. Dharma is above religion. On this, he propounded Integral Humanism. It means that an individual’s development should be in all four areas- dharm, kaam, arth and moksh
Alternative of Congress
In 1960, Deendayal Updhyay started polarisation against congress. He actualised it by 1965 and by 1967, there was anti-congress regime. He is called architect of non-congress movement along with Ram Manohar lohiya. In 1967 election, for the first time after independence, in the hindi belt of India, a political non-congress government was formed.
Thus, Deendayal Upadhyay paved a way for non-congress alternative in India. It was not opportunism. According to him, there should be diversity in democracy. There shouldn’t be one leader-one party-one policy. This is detrimental for democracy. He believed in India’s tradition and culture and was not against modern tech but he wanted policies which suited Indian requirements and conditions. His approach was also constructive but at the same time he was not soft when it came to principles. For example, In Rajasthan, he had expelled 6 MLAs of Jan Sangh out of 8MLAs because they were opposing Zamindari abolition act. For him, quality mattered than quantity.
He was a Philosopher, journalist, sociologist, economist, thinker, and worked dedicatedly for organisation and with principles. For him, morality in public life was important.
In 1950s, there was a proposal to merge Jan Sangh and Swatantra party, Hindu Mahasahba and Ram Rajya Karpatri maharaj as these parties constituted 16% vote. But Deendaayal Updhyay objected the merger. The reason was that Shyama Prasad Mukherjee had asked Hindu Mahasabha to open its door for all religions but it didn’t agree. So Deendayal Updhyay objected to it. According to him, Ram Rajya Karpatri maharaj’s cottage was run from palaces which was not acceptable to Deendayal Upadhyay in politics. He believed in purity in politics and principle. This is the difference between contemporary politics and Upadhyay ji. He sacrificed LS seat for values in politics. His message should be spread across the political parties for casteless politics, communalism les politics. He stood for politics which should be value based. This is why Jan Sangh got credibility due to his value based politics.
The present government is following his ideal through Last mile delivery-Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas- Development for all. Deendayal Upadhyay also talked about cottage industries, village based industries where people could be self reliant. This is reflected in Gandhiji’s philosophy also.
He gave three cardinal principles for Indian politics:
- Decentralisation– Basic for indian republic. So village central development is there. Thus, agri should be given prime importance.
- Diversity in social and cultural ideas. It should not be an environment of uniformity. Because he followed this principle, he appealed to most population.
- Planning should be decentralised. Bottom top approach was proposed so that real needs can be known.
These things are to be adopted in new context because new political discourse is posing threat to culture, society and community life. This is why Deendayal Upadhyay is more relevant in neo-liberal era. He practiced what he preached and today’s contemporary politics needs to learn it too.
- Father of Indian Space Programme: Dr Vikram Sarabhai
His important contribution includes –
- Initiation of space research and development of nuclear power in India. He convinced the Government of India to form the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962 and was the first chairperson of the committee. INCOSPAR was later renamed as Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969. He played an advisory role in the new setup.
- Vikram Sarabhai founded the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad on November 11, 1947. He was only 28 at that time.
- He was also Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission.
- He played a major role in the creation of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
- Some of the other most well-known institutions established by Dr. Sarabhai are:
- Community Science Centre, Ahmedabad
- Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram
- Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad
- Faster Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Kalpakkam
- Varaiable Energy Cyclotron Project, Calcutta
- Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Hyderabad
- Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL), Jaduguda, Bihar
- As a result of Dr. Sarabhai’s dialogue with NASA in 1966, the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) was launched.
- Dr. Sarabhai started a project for the fabrication and launch of an Indian Satellite. As a result, the first Indian satellite, Aryabhata, was put in orbit in 1975 from a Russian Cosmodrome.
- “Sarabhai” Crater is named after Dr Vikram Sarabhai and around 250 to 300 kilometres east of this Crater is where the Apollo 17 and Luna 21 Missions had landed. As per the ISRO sources, the Sarabhai Crater captured in 3D images shows that the Crater has a depth of around 1.7 Kms taken from its raised rim and the slope of Crater walls is in between 25 to 35 degree. These findings will help the Space Scientists to understand further the process on the lunar region filled with lava.
Dr Sarabhai famously said, “We must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society.” When India strives to become more ‘Atma-nirbhar’, we realize the significance of his words.