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SYNOPSIS [12th February,2021] Day 29: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. Positive attitude without skills can’t ensure success in one’s professional life. Do you agree? Substantiate.
Approach- Question is asking to substantiate, candidate can state importance positive attitude at workplace in first part, and then importance of skill over positive attitude In the second part can be given. A way forward can be concluded with the fusion of both qualities.
Positive attitude translates to better performance. Instead of finding excuses for non-performance, a positive thinking individual will think of ways to accomplish his/her task. Positive attitudes yield greater progress and hence, more compensation or work perks.
why positive attitude matters?
- Your stress level will certainly affect those around you. At the workplace, when the stress levels build-up, it will be difficult to keep a smiling face throughout your challenges. However, with a positive attitude, you cannot just sort out your problems, you will ensure that your peers don’t suffer.
- Happy peers or subordinates are happier to improve their productivity. For little effort, you can get more done. Improving your disposition will have a ripple effect that positively influences everyone you come in contact with. A positive attitude helps subordinates and leaders appreciate each other and work as a team for achieving common objectives.
- Positive people are also empowered. They are capable of saying no or standing up for their rights. A positive attitude gives you the strength to take risks, allow yourself some privileges, and own up to a mistake. Empowerment is the consequence of a positive workplace.
- Employees with an innovative attitude are happy to try something new. Need to think outside of the box? Think positive. With the right attitude, you will be willing to innovate new ideas. You will not fear failure, as you find your way up the creative zone.
Is positive attitude enough for success?
- Positive attitude is just an attitude, implementing this attitude and creating a positive environment is skill. There are soft skills which are necessary to implement one’s hard skill.
- Soft skills are personal habits and traits that shape how you work, on your own and with others. Effective communication, for example, is a key soft skill many employers seek. Some others include dependability, effective teamwork and active listening.
- For example, you may be seeking a job but lack prior knowledge of data analysis tools. If you have references that can attest to the effectiveness of your soft skills, such as empathy, open-mindedness and communication, an employer may choose you over another candidate whose hard skills are stronger but who lacks the same level of soft skills.
What are some skills?
- Integrity, Dependability Effective communication Open-mindedness Teamwork, Creativity, Problem-solving, Critical thinking, Adaptability, Organization, Willingness to learn, Empathy.
- Life, including work life, is so much more rewarding when you’re learning new skills and growing in your strengths. Who wouldn’t want to learn and grow? However, learning something unfamiliar can be intimidating. You’re being pulled out of your comfort zone and into the unknown. Unlike the familiar work that you now do without much thought, you have to work at something new to become skilled at it. You may have setbacks along the way.
- The world is always changing. New technology replaces the old at sometimes dizzying speed. New ideas about best business practices are constantly being introduced, and those at the top want to give them a try. If you’re someone who can embrace change and learn the new skills, there’s no limit to how much you can grow.
- skills are needed across all industries, for example, strong communication skills are needed whether you are working as a nurse, a hairdresser, a mechanic etc. Developing each soft skill comes with its own advantages, for instance, improving communication will help your employees interact more effectively and improvements in time-management can increase productivity.
- Outside of the office, soft skills such as communication are used to build friendship groups and meet potential partners. You might be negotiating the price of your new house renovation, or mentoring your neighbours children on the weekend. Soft skills are useful both in our professional and personal lives.
The World Economic Forum Future of Jobs report suggested that by 2020, complex problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, people management and emotional intelligence would be among the most important skills required in the workplace. Apart from positive attitude, this skill set is important to keep positive attitude in life and in work. Combination of both will prove effective otherwise just theory will be of no use without practical.
2. What do you understand by political attitude? What should be the ideal political
attitude of a civil servant? Discuss.
The question is asking you to discuss that is a written debate where one has to use your skill at reasoning, backed up by deliberately selected evidence to make a case for and against an argument, or point out the advantages and disadvantages of a given context.
Political attitudes is a central component of people’s belief systems. It plays a central role in explaining political behaviour, notably as intermediate variables between social structure and political behaviour. Political attitude tells us which party someone vote for, what kind of political ideology someone prefer most, which social, economic, cultural, international policy someone prefer etc.
WHAT SHOULD BE THE IDEAL POLITICAL ATTITUDE OF A CIVIL SERVANT
The civil servant should possess a political attitude such as which helps him in the following:
- To uphold constitutional values – like empathy and compassion towards weak, respect for women, protection of environment.
- Practice civil service values – Objectivity – A secretary who has negative attitude towards reservation if asked to prepare a report on the same must be able to do it objectively. Responsive – Civil servants are accused of showing resistance to power sharing and decentralization. They must change their attitude to respond to aspirations of people.
- Professionalism – Recently government had to introduce biometric to bring punctuality in public servants. Punctuality should rather be their attitude and come from within and this develops when there is neutral political attitude.
- The role of civil servant is to effectively implement the policies irrespective of rightist, centrist or leftist government and whether it is NREGA or Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan. If he is too vocal about his views, he may not be able to implement the policies of the party he does not favour with the same level of zeal and motivation.
- There should be Neutrality to depict that public officials are not slaves to either the politicians or any other authority other than the moral authority of the Constitution.
- Poise and contentment of the people and their confidence in the Government of the country can best be secured only if the responsible officers of the Government realise that they are after all “public servants” and that conciliation and co-operation should be the basic principle of relationship between the rulers and the ruled.
For smooth functioning of the society and system and to maintain concord and co-ordination within the society, every society plans the effective governing of its people. The civil servant has a critical role to play in the development of the society. To summarize, political attitude is belief and action system that decides an action based on electoral gains. Political attitude on positive side can lead to showing zero tolerance toward corruption, pro-poor, welfare for weaker sections, listening to public grievances, but on negative side political attitude can take shape of regionalism, communalising public to polarise them during election.
3. How does one’s attitude reflect in his/her behaviour? Illustrate.
Question is very straight forward in its approach students are expected to write a detailed explanation about how attitude reflects in one’s behaviour, use of examples is important, as demanded in the question.
Attitude can be defined as learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluations of people, issues, objects, or events. Such evaluations are often positive or negative, but they can also be uncertain at times. It also involves a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. While attitudes are enduring, they can also change. Attitudes are a combination of beliefs and feelings and can be affected when confronted with social pressures.
Attitude as a reflection of behaviour-
- Attitude and behavior are woven into the fabric of daily life. Research has shown that individuals register an immediate and automatic reaction of “good” or “bad” towards everything they encounter in less than a second, even before they are aware of having formed an attitude. Advertising, political campaigns, and other persuasive media messages are all built on the premise that behavior follows attitude, and attitude can be influenced with the right message delivered in the right way.
- Attitude, when shaped in the right way, can influence behaviour to achieve a favourable outcome. The concept that behaviour follows attitude is used extensively by advertising and marketing companies. When done right, advertisements can change the attitudes of people towards some things especially their product. As a result, the viewer tends to or at least considers buying that product. This behaviour of the person would not have arisen if it was not for the change in attitude caused by the advertisement.
- A similar concept is used by psychologists while formulating means to tackle social issues like racism, discrimination, etc. “Social Marketing ” is a concept that uses the above idea along with the concepts of marketing to encourage good behaviours in people and at the same time discourage some bad behaviours such as frequent smoking, drinking, etc. This involves literally selling attitudes to people thereby influencing their behaviour.
- Attitude is one of the main factors that trigger emotions, decision-making, thinking and behaviour in an individual. Following are some examples of how attitude influence the behaviour:
- A positive attitude can will lead to a positive behaviour. E.g A person who has positive attitudes towards work and co-workers (such as contentment, friendliness, etc.) can positively influence those around them e.g, only if the citizens of a country have a positive attitude towards cleanliness, campaigns such as Swatch Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) will succeed. Here, by various campaigns (advertisements), the government is trying to change the attitude of citizens, and hence to stop their behaviour of throwing wastes in public, open-defecation etc.
- Similarly negative attitude lead to negative behaviour. E.g, if a person have a negative attitude towards women, he will discriminate women in all fronts of life.
- A selfish attitude will guide individual’s action in same manner. E.g A cricketer who put his self interest and profit above the nation, will take money to loose the game.
- Logic or rational attitudes develop a rational behaviour. E.g a rational person will not act superstitiously and will always try to find rational behind any act.
- An egoistic attitude will result in a negative attitude and behaviour. E.g elder individuals control their younger siblings even if they are wrong to satisfy their ego of being elder.
- An attitude based on values and beliefs will act according to the values. E.g in India touching feet of elders is guided by attitude of giving respect to them.
Attitude plays a vital role in Shaping Mindset and Personality of an Individual. It is thus been rightly said ” Attitude is a Little thing that makes a big difference.” Attitude forms a vital component of an individual’s personality by manifesting itself in form of thought, behaviour and emotion. There is a need of better socialization and education of people in order to inculcate positive aspects of attitude and wipe out negatives.
4. Sooner or later, those who win are those who think they can. Comment.
We need to comment on utility of having positive thought process and how it ensures a positive outcome even if takes time.
What we think about, what we keep in our mind is what we create and what will sooner or later show up in our lives. What we think about is what we create, it may be positive or negative depending on what we think of ourselves and our surrounding.
Those who think they can win, win sooner or later due to following reasons –
- Motivation and Dedication: Positive thinking motivates individual to aspire for higher goals and dedication ensures that he/she achieves the desired goals. Example: Freedom fighters like Gandhi, Nehru, Sardar Patel, Bhagat Singh, etc. only thought of India’s independence which motivated them and kept them dedicated and sooner or later ensured Independence for India.
- Guide Character, Behaviour and actions: Gandhi rightly said that, your thoughts become your words, your words become your actions, your actions become your habits, your habits become your values, and your values become your destiny. Thus to think of a win, creates a positive cascading impact on individuals overall personality.
- Positivity attracts Positivity: Positive thinking attracts positive people around us, which help us in achieving our goals. Example: #MeToo movement initiated with a positive thought of liberating women from sexual harassment, attracted women all over the world and sooner or later it will ensure women empowerment within more secure social ecosystem.
- Recent win of Indian cricket team in Test series against Australia after facing one of its worst defeat, signifies that those who think they can win, will win sooner or later.
However, negative thinking cause adverse outcomes –
- Demoralized attitude: A negative thought erodes individuals motivation and dedication, which eventually demoralises individual and almost ensures an imminent defeat. Example:
- Negative thought induces fear which is detrimental in achieving desired goals.
- Negative thought processes like Casteism, Communalism, Gender based discrimination, etc. cause riots, Mob lynching, rapes, etc. which keeps India away from achieving its true potential and a true win.
- Example: Delhi riots, Kathua rape incident, Palghar mob lynching, etc. reflect negativism which holds back India and drags its development to an uncertain future.
Every great achievement has a positive thought process behind it. Today, India aspires to achieve multiple ambitious goals like becoming Atma Nirbhar, Jagat guru, Vasudeva Kutumbakam, etc.; with a positive responsible thought process of inclusiveness and sustainability, India will surely achieve these goals sooner or later.
5. What are Benami transactions? Why are they a menace for the economy? What measures have been taken to control them? Discuss.
Students are expected to write about explain what is Benami transactions and how they are menace for economy. Also highlight on measures taken by government to control such transactions.
Benami deals have been quite common in India cases date back to the late nineteenth century. Benami transactions proliferated during India’s socialist past. Large scale benami deals happened when land reforms entailed the abolition of zamindari, giving tillers rights to own the land as well as imposition of agricultural land ceilings.
- Benami’ is a Persian word meaning ‘without name’ or ‘no name’. According to the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act 1988, ‘benami’ transaction is any transaction in which property is transferred to one person for a consideration paid by another person. In other words, the real owner of the property is not the person under whose name transaction is made.
- Benami holding is equally common in respect of various kinds of movable properties. For example, Shares of companies are often purchased or applied for and allotted in the names of persons other than the real owner who furnishes the consideration. Most benamidars are relations generally husband, wife and children.
Benami transactions menance for the economy:
- Rather than hoarding the black money in cash, the tax evader invest their accumulated illegal money in buying benami properties. The whole process affects the revenue generation of government hampering growth and development of the state.
- Since the percentage of tax payer in the country is a dismal low, the government fails to successfully implement its policies and schemes due to lack of resources.
- The adverse impact of benami transactions on the country‘s economy is large. It bifurcates income earning activities into fragments leading to loss of tax revenue for the government which could have been used for the welfare and development of nation.
- Benami deals are one of the main reason for proliferation of black money in big way and poverty and inequity could not be eliminated unless generation of black money is controlled. In India, where people prefer to invest their unaccounted wealth in real estate, benami transactions especially in realty sector have become major avenues for holding and generation of black money.
- These transactions have inflated realty prices, narrowed options for home buyers and kept own house a dream beyond reach for many.
To effectively prohibit Benami transactions and consequently prevent circumvention of law through unfair practices measures taken to control Benami transactions:
- The first act against benami properties ws passed in 1988 as the Prohibition of Benami Property Transactions Act, 1988.
- To curb black money, the Modi government in July 2016 decided to amend the original act. So after further amendment, Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amendment Act, 2016. The amendment act strengthens the parent Act in terms of legal and administrative procedure. The aim of the act is to redirect the unaccounted money into the financial system.
- It defines a benami transaction and benami property and also provides for exclusions and transactions which shall not be construed benami.
- The act provides for establishment of an Adjudicating Authority by the Central Government. The case shall be decided in a year’s time, once it is referred by the initiator to the adjudicating authority. Appeals against the adjudicating authority’s decision can be taken to the Appellate Tribunal at New Delhi. Also Certain sessions courts would be designated as Special Courts for trying offences which are punishable under the Act.
- Once an order is finalized, the Benami properties will be confiscated. The PBPT Act prohibits recovery of the property held benami from benamidar by the real owner. Properties held benami are liable for confiscation by the Government without payment of compensation.
- Benamidar or any person who abets other person to enter into such transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of up to 25% of the fair market value of such Benami property.
Implications of measures:
- In Real estate, the financial transactions and black money is very rampant. The government can control the layering that happens, where lot of black money is converted to white.
- This can control the inflation on property prices. With PBPT in place, we may see the corrections in the property prices. It is helping in reducing practice of using fake owners & will bring transparency in real estate sector.
- It is also boosting confidence of lenders especially banks & also private individuals. The amendment will have a greater impact on Benami transactions happening on a larger scale in agriculture land.
The strong law to deal with the deep rooted malady of benami transaction was tackled to create process of healthy business development in India. The strict enforcement of the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, could unearth black money hidden through benami properties and make property accumulation difficult for corrupt persons and also work as a deterrent for others.