In news: Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu urged youngsters to take inspiration from the life of Subhas Chandra Bose and work for eradicating ills such as poverty, illiteracy, social and gender discrimination and corruption from the society.
- Noting that 65 per cent of India’s population is below 35 years of age, the Vice President said youngsters should lead from the front in building a New India — a happy and prosperous India where every citizen gets equal opportunities and where there is no discrimination of any kind.
- “Parakram” or courage was the most defining feature of Netaji’s persona; the vice president said and lauded the government’s decision to celebrate Bose’s birthday as “Parakram Divas”.
- Referring to the pivotal role played by Bose and several freedom fighters, social reformers, including unsung heroes from different regions, he said many people were not aware of their greatness as their contributions were not properly projected in the history books.
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
- Subhash Chandra Bose was twice elected President of the Indian National Congress, (1938-Haripur and 1939-Tripuri).
- Owing to political differences, he resigned from the Congress Presidentship in 1939 and organised the All India Forward Bloc a faction within the Congress in Bengal.
- In Calcutta, Bose organised mass protests and was arrested.
- He was later put under house arrest from where he escaped.
- He went to Germany via Afghanistan.
- However, in 1943 Bose lost hope that Germany could be of any help in gaining India’s independence.
- He then turned to Asia where he finally came at the helm of the Indian National Army (INA).
- INA found support among expatriate Indians and Bose formed the Azad Hind government which came to produce its own currency, postage stamps, court and civil code.
- It was recognised by Axis states.
- During the final two years of the war, Bose with considerable Japanese backing- led the forces of the Indian National Army into battle against the British.
- The I.N.A. was essentially non-communal, with Muslims quite prominent among its officers and ranks, and it also introduced the innovation of a women’s detachment named after the Rani of Jhansi.
Azad Hind Fauj
- Leader of Azad Hind Government
- Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government-in-exile
Bose was convinced that armed struggle was the only way to achieve independence for India. He had been a leader of the radical wing of the Indian National Congress in the late 1920s and 1930s, rising to become Congress president in 1938 and 1939 but was ousted following differences with Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress leadership.
- Subhas Chandra Bose had escaped from India in 1941 and gone to Germany to work for India’s Independence. In 1943, he came to Singapore to lead the Indian Independence league and rebuild the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to make it an effective instrument for the freedom of India.
- Netaji went to the Andaman which had been occupied by the Japanese and hoisted there the flag of India. In early 1944, three units of the Azad Hind Fauj (INA) took part in the attack on the north-eastern parts of India to oust the British from India.
- The Azad Hind Fauj, with the slogan of ‘Delhi Chalo’ and the salutation Jai Hind was a source of inspiration to Indians, inside and outside the country. Netaji rallied together the Indians of all religions and regions, living in south-east Asia, for the cause of India’s freedom.
- A women’s regiment of Azad Hind Fauj was formed, which was under the command of Captain Lakshmi Swaminathan. It was called the Rani Jhansi regiment. The Azad Hind Fauj became the symbol of unity and heroism to the people of India.
Bose’s death was seen as the end to the Azad Hind movement.
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Dweep: Ross Island of Andaman & Nicobar Island
Birthday of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose to be celebrated as Parakram Diwas:
- Government of India has decided to celebrate the 125th Birth Anniversary year of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in a befitting manner at national and international level, beginning from 23rd January 2021.
- A High Level Committee, headed by the Prime Minister has been constituted for deciding the programs, and to supervise and guide the commemoration.
- Objective: To remember Netaji’s indomitable spirit and selfless service to the nation and to inspire people of the country, especially the youth, to act with fortitude in the face of adversity as Netaji did.
Connecting the Dots:
- Do you think leaders like Subhash Chandra Bose have been given due credit and recognition in history? Analyse.
- In terms of political ideology and commitment towards socialism, what differences do you notice between Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss.