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SYNOPSIS [22nd JUNE,2021] Day 117: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1.How did Mahatma Gandhi’s experiments and experiences during his political career in South Africa shape the nationalist movement in India? Analyse
Here you have to write about Gandhi’s stay and his experience in South Africa. Write about his important work in South Africa. Later discuss how this helped in national movement in India.
Before leading the Indian freedom movement, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi used to live in South Africa to fight against injustice and class division. Within 10 years, Gandhi propagated the philosophy of Satyagraha there and propelled the country towards a no class or ethnic discrimination society.
Gandhi’s experiments and experience during his political career in South Africa:
- While he was travelling by train to Pretoria, Gandhi, a white man complained of an Indian sharing the space with him. As a response, Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894. This organisation led non-violent protests against the oppressive treatment of the white people towards the native Africans and Indians.
- During the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, Gandhi gathered around 1,100 Indians and organised the Indian Ambulance Corps for the British but the ethnic discrimination and torture continued on Indians.
- Gandhi would train his cadres on non-violent Satyagraha or peaceful restraint. Phoenix Farm is considered as the birthplace of Satyagraha. However, it was at the Tolstoy Farm, Gandhi’s second camp in South Africa, where Satyagraha was molded into a weapon of protest.
- Gandhi organised the first Satyagraha campaign to protest against the Transvaal Asiatic ordinance that was constituted against the local Indians. Again in June 1907, he held Satyagraha against the Black Act.
Experience and experiments of gandhi shaped Indian National movement in many ways:
- Gandhi also brought women in to Indian National movement, during his organization of protest in Africa, as he was convinced of the inner strength of women.
- As Gandhi took the charge of Indian National Movement, he slowly introduced his distinctive Gandhian methods of protest like truth, non violence, civil obedience, non-cooperation which he evolved in South Africa.
- He also came to realise that at times the leaders have to take decisions unpopular with their enthusiastic supporters. For example calling off movement after chauri chaura incident.
- He promoted harmony between religions, and first alerted upper -caste Indians to their discriminatory treatment of low castes and women. His greatest learning in South Africa was perhaps the unification of the heterogeneous Indian community that comprised of disgruntled merchants and the bonded labourers.
- His second weapon, non violence or ahimsa also evolved in South Africa. This cardinal principle of Gandhian philosophy was imbibed from Jainism and Vaishnavism. Gandhi showed to the world how non violence could be used as an effective political tool to fight the injustices hurled by an oppressive government.
- As the historian Chandran Devanesan has remarked, South Africa was “the making of the Mahatma”. The twenty- one long years that Gandhi lived in South Africa, had a considerable influence on the formation of his political ideologies and the philosophies of his life which impacted Indian nationalism and movement.
Thus Gandhi’s faith in capacity of masses to fight established through his experience in South Africa. He was able to evolve his own style of leadership and politics and techniques of struggle for mass based from moderate based struggle of petition and prayers to gandhian methods of non cooperation, civil disobedience and persuading by attacking the conscience of oppressor.
2. The Indian National Congress wasn’t the only political organisation active during the nationalist movement. A number of political parties emerged during the freedom struggle that had a contrasting philosophy on constitutional, political and economic matters. Elaborate with the help of suitable examples.
You should know political organisations and bodies present in India before and after establishment of congress. You must mention their names, ideologies and prominent leaders. You can draw a map to show regional parties.
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good.
- It’s fair to say that Indian National Congress dominated the political landscape of India during the pre-independence era. Ever since it was formed in 1885, the party dedicated itself towards strengthening the nationalist movement against the British rule.
- INC set the wheel in motion by organising national and regional campaigns and protest movements. The party embarked upon a policy of boycotting imported British goods and promoting swadeshi goods.
But apart from the INC there were others with different view and ideologies such as:
- Other major parties at the time of independence included the Communist Party of India (CPI), with its origins in the peasants and workers parties of the past, representing, like them, the communist left. The CPI began the independence period under a cloud because of its Moscow-directed cooperation with the British during World War II. CPI needed to have soviet style political economy system.
- HMS, nonetheless, reflected a vital Hindu nationalist strain that has seen several party iterations in the years since and continues to be force in the Hindi-speaking belt of north India.
- Muslim league was started in 1906. It wanted to protect interests of Muslims in India. So it demanded special rights to Muslims like reservations as evident in debates during Nehru report and subsequent round table conferences.
- Justice party It was started in Madras presidency in 1917 to protect interests of South Indian non Brahmin castes. One of its leader Periyar Started self respect movement for the same. It didn’t boycott Simon commission as against call by congress to boycott the same.
- Forward block Started by Netaji Bose after divergence of views between him and Gandhiji. He was of the view of taking help of Axis powers like Germany and Japan during world war 2 to fight against British. But this was opposed by congress.
- Labour Party By Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in 1936. He was politically opposite to Gandhi. Later he stared scheduled caste federation to promote interests of scheduled castes.
- Unionist party of Punjab founded by Sir Fazli Husain, Sir Chotu Ram and Sir Sikandar Hayat Khanin 1923. Basically represented the Punjabi zamindar (rural/agrarian)interests. The party was secular in nature and believed in a strong and united Punjabi entity, bringing together Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and other communities of this province.
- Congress socialist party, Started in 1934 by socialists like J.P. Narayan and others. It was secular in nature. Advocated decentralized socialism in which co-operatives, trade unions, independent farmers, and local authorities would hold a substantial share of the economic power.
Emergence of multi-party system and coalition culture with caste and religious based ideology is todays reality of Indian political parties but before independence the priorities of the parties was purely Indian independence and certain common principles and goals regarding the political system of a India. Although with differences of ideologies and perspectives they created the environment of mutual respect and agree to disagree culture on such idea Indian constitution was framed and was also embedded in Indian culture and way of life.
3. What are the strategies adopted by the government to promote crop diversity in India? What additional measures would you suggest in this direction?
Candidates should start with basic idea on the crop diversity in India and then define a crops diversity. In later part address the government’s efforts policies for crop diversity. Candidates with giving additional measures suggestions can also highlight the benefits and hurdles of crop diversification.
Crop diversification is intended to give a wider choice in the production of a variety of crops in a given area so as to expand production related activities on various crops and also to lessen risk. Crop diversification in India is generally viewed as a shift from traditionally grown less remunerative crops to more remunerative crops. The crop shift (diversification) also takes place due to governmental policies and thrust on some crops over a given time.
- Crop diversification refers to the addition of new crops or cropping systems to agricultural production on a particular farm taking into account the different returns from value- added crops with complementary marketing opportunities.
- Crop diversification refers to a shift from the regional dominance of one crop to production of a number of crops.
Strategies adopted by government to promote crop diversity:
- The government of India has launched crop diversification scheme in the original green revolution areas of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh. Under Crop Diversification Programme assistance is provided to states for conducting cluster demonstrations on alternate crops, promotion of water saving technologies, distribution of farm machinery, and awareness through training.
- Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW) is implementing a Crop Diversification Programme (CDP) for replacing paddy crop with less water consuming alternative crops to save water and protect soil in the state of Punjab.
- Crop Diversification Programme (CDP), a sub scheme of RashtriyaKrishiVikasYojana (RKVY) is being implemented in Original Green Revolution States to divert the area of paddy crop to alternate crops and in tobacco growing states to encourage tobacco farmers to shift to alternate crops/cropping system.
- Under CDP for replacing paddy crop, assistance is provided for four major interventions viz., alternate crop demonstrations, farm mechanisation & value addition, site-specific activities &contingency for awareness, training, monitoring, etc. However, for replacing tobacco crop, tobacco growing states have been given flexibility to take suitable activities/interventions for growing alternative agricultural/horticultural crops.
- Government of India also provide flexibility to the states for state specific needs/priorities under RKVY. The state can promote crop diversification under RKVY with the approval of State.
- Various Technology Mission and later Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM) has been launched with the aim of increasing production and productivity of the different oilseed crops and pulse and maize by developing location-specific technologies for each of the crops for maximising production.
- Government also promote use of the mixed crop-livestock system to increase their standards of living and income. Animal husbandry or Animal Agriculture is the branch of science dealing with the practice of breeding, farming and care of farm animals (livestocks) such as cattle, dogs, sheep and horses by humans for advantages. It refers to livestock raising and selective breeding.
Benefits of the crop diversity:
- Crop diversification can better tolerate the ups and downs in price of various farm products and it may ensure economic stability of farming products.
- At present, 70-80% farmers have land below 2 hectare. To overcome this, existing cropping patterns must be diversified with high value crops such as maize, pulses, etc.
- Adoption of crop diversification helps in conservation of natural resources like introduction of legume in rice-wheat cropping system, which has the ability to fix atmospheric Nitrogen to help sustain soil fertility.
Hurdles for crop diversity:
- Inadequate supply of seeds and plants of improved cultivars.
- Fragmentation of land holding less favouring modernisation and mechanisation of agriculture.
- Poor basic infrastructure like rural roads, power, transport, communications etc.
- Inadequate post-harvest technologies and inadequate infrastructure for post-harvest handling of perishable horticultural produce.
Addition measures for crop diversification:
- The government must promote crop diversification by purchasing crops produced other than wheat and rice at Minimum Support Price. This could also help conserve the dwindling supply of underground water.
- Agricultural emissions can also be limited through smarter livestock handling, technology-enabled monitoring of fertiliser application, simple changes in field layout and other, more efficient agricultural techniques.
- Horticulture crops have short turnaround time than food crops which helps in efficient land utilisation, increased production and productivity, and also increases income of farmers.
- Millets are the super foods for the present and future; their short growing season (65 days) makes them commercially sound it needs to highly promoted in Indian agricultural system.
Most of the Indian population suffers from malnutrition. Most of the girl children have anaemia. With crop diversification including crops like pulses, oilseed, horticulture, and vegetable crops can improve socio economic status by adding quality to the food basket and also improve soil health with the aim of food safety and nutritional security.