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SYNOPSIS [6th August,2021] Day 150: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. Discuss the attributes of India’s nuclear doctrine. Do you think India’s nuclear doctrine represents the aspiration for a nuclear weapons free world? Examine.
Define in introduction what is a nuclear doctrine and contextualise to philosophy of Indian nuclear doctrine.In next part write broad tenets of Indian nuclear doctrine and substantiate how this focuses on a world free of nuclear weapons.In short state what are limitations of Indian doctrine and write a reformative conclusion.
A nuclear doctrine states how a nuclear weapon state would employ its nuclear weapons both during peace and war.The doctrine helps to establish deterrence vis-à-vis adversary.Through the nuclear doctrine a state can communicate its intention and resolve to the enemy.The doctrine also guides the state’s response during war.India has always held that its use of nuclear power will be purely for developmental goals and deterrence,rather than aggression and belligerence.
Attributes of India’s Nuclear Doctrine include :
- Building and maintaining a credible minimum deterrent;
- A posture of “No First Use” nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian territory or on Indian forces anywhere;
- Nuclear retaliation to a first strike will be massive and designed to inflict unacceptable damage.
- Nuclear retaliatory attacks can only be authorised by the civilian political leadership through the Nuclear Command Authority.
- Non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states;
- However, in the event of a major attack against India, or Indian forces anywhere, by biological or chemical weapons, India will retain the option of retaliating with nuclear weapons;
- A continuance of strict controls on export of nuclear and missile related materials and technologies, participation in the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty negotiations, and continued observance of the moratorium on nuclear tests.
- Continued commitment to the goal of a nuclear weapon free world, through global, verifiable and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament.
India’s nuclear doctrine represents the aspirations of nuclear weapons free world.
- Deterrence: Our nuclear stocks are not for weapons but peace and energy security purpose to cater to our ever growing needs and will also create stability in world.The nuclear stocks of India are even lesser than its adversary Pakistan.
- First use: Since no first use policy and non-use against non-nuclear state, the use in war will be limited.This signals certainty on use and avoids competition in neighbourhood.
- India’s nuclear doctrine keeps open options for global negotiations to reach a nuclear free world which should be non discriminatory in nature.India was First nation in 1988 to argue for nuclear free world and this still remains an essential tenet of India’s nuclear doctrine .
- India has placed all its civil nuclear reactors under IAEA and therefore wants to focus on peaceful use of nuclear energy for medicinal and energy needs.
Limitations of India’s nuclear doctrine:
- The conventional criticism against a ‘no first use’ policy is that India would have to suffer a first strike before it retaliated.
- Critics of the NFU policy argue that the increasing stockpile of Pakistani nuclear weapons and China’s expansionist designs in the region warrant a change in the doctrine.
- A major worry for India is a two-front war when both China and Pakistan collude and simultaneously launch offensives. In case India faces severe adversity, its traditional nuclear doctrine of NFU may not be ideal.
- There is lack of clarity on what does massive retaliation means and when it will be carried out.Further what nature of chemical or biological weapon will lead to retaliation is not clear.
- The policy also doesn’t clarify on what will be measure taken if there is an attack by non state actors which is a possibility given the insurgency situation in Kashmir and Northeast India.
Nuclear weapon for India is for peace purposes but it also serves our energy needs. But with changing world situation, nuclear doctrine should undergo periodic review and changes like in other nuclear states.Further India’s principled nuclear doctrine, it’s time tested credibility in peaceful nuclear use and its commitment to non discriminatory global disarmament must be leveraged to acquire membership in Global Nuclear Regime. These platforms must be used to strengthen the global nuclear architecture disincentivizing nuclear states to either use or transfer nuclear know how to non state actors.
2. What’s a proxy war? Has it affected India? Examine
Define what is proxy war and contextualise to India.In next part with help of examples write how has it affected India.In conclusion write what measures needs to be taken to tackle this menace.
Proxy wars are one of the major categories of conflict that contribute to humanitarian crises around the world. The war can take place between multiple countries, or a country and a non state actor like a politically violent group..Multiple proxy wars can occur simultaneously around the world. In addition, multiple states can back proxies within other states, which can be seen in both Syria and Yemen.India has been facing proxy war from Pakistan and its supported non state actors and various militant groups in Northeast region and central India.
Proxy war and its effects on India:
- Pakistan’s war in Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere in India is clearly a war being waged by one state against another through asymmetric means. The terrorist groups like Lashkar-e Taiba and Jaish-e- Mohammad are sponsored, financed, armed, trained and indoctrinated by the ISI. They are provided covering fire to help them infiltrate across the Line of Control (LoC) by the Pakistani Army.This hurts India economically in the resources spent and lass of manpower due to loss of lives of soldiers.
- Pakistan claims that it only provides political, diplomatic and moral support to Kashmiri insurgents whom it calls ‘freedom fighters’. In reality, the terrorist groups are ISI protégés and do its bidding, much like the Haqqani network does so in Afghanistan.It harms peaceful order of Kashmir, sows seeds of dissent and is threat to sovereignty and integrity of the nation.
- ISI has a separate wing that controls all the activities of all anti-India terrorist organisations. It runs the terrorist training camps in PoK and other parts of Pakistan.It radicalises both Indian population and bordering people.
- ISI organises infiltration across the LoC with the help of Pakistan Army. Hundreds of radio transmissions between the ISI handlers and the terrorist group commanders in Jammu and Kashmir are intercepted by Indian Signals units every month.
- Pakistan has lost no opportunity to accuse India – its army and police forces of human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir while conducting counter-insurgency operations. It is performed through an aggressive diplomacy in United Nations, OIC and other Arab multilateral groupings.
- Pakistan is operating a big network of printing and circulating fake Indian currency notes through its own government presses in order to undermine Indian economy.
- Recently, the ISI has once again begun to support and provide shelter to the so-called Khalistanis with a view to launching renewed efforts to revive the separatist movement that had been wiped out from Punjab in the early 1990s.
- Terrorist attacks targeting military and critical installations like Pathankot and Uri are testimony to the fact that Pakistan is waging a proxy war against India through asymmetric means.
- The naxalist target administrative symbols such as schools, roads and telephone towers this hurts the growth and development of a region.Further it gives rise to extortion mechanisms as their primary earning source.
The proxy wars have led to rise in defence budgets year on year which could have been used for other developmental purposes, the local region disturbances which have shooed away investors from the region, unemployment and consequent radicalisation of youth has made them loss their productive years.Further the constant war like atmosphere have affected the mental well being of the population and have also curbed many of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution.
Even after three full scale wars, Pakistan still wants to inflict thousand cuts on India. Our security forces have been successful in pushing back infiltrators and warding of major attacks but still lot needs to be done on ground level to finish off this proxy war.
The recent change in policy from defence to offensive with surgical strikes across the borders will increase the cost for Pakistan.Further there needs to be equal focus on development of local region and investment in defence and intelligence services to fight the proxy war.
3. The National Education Policy completed one year recently. What is your assessment of the new policy? Critically comment.
Introduce with what is new education policy and when was it launched.In next part write what are its achievements and what are its limitations.In conclusion write what should be path ahead.
Education Policy lays particular emphasis on the development of the creative potential of each individual. The New National Education Policy was approved by the Union Cabinet on 29 July 2020 to bring about transformational reforms in school and higher education systems in the country. The first education policy of the 21st century replaces the 34-year-old National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986. Also, the Ministry of Human Resources and Development was renamed the Ministry of Education.This has recently completed one year of its implementation.
Changes brought by new National Education Policy in one year :
- Curricula have been tweaked in schools to include subjects such as financial literacy and artificial intelligence. As part of this initiative, CBSE has tied up with Microsoft to help Class VI-VIII students work on coding-related modules starting in the 2021-22 academic year.
- medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the mother tongue or a regional language has been introduced on a pilot basis. This applies even to engineering courses and a few institutes have been chosen to implement this initiative in the 2021-22 academic year.
- The primary objective of NEP 2020 was to reduce undue focus on the Class 10 and Class 12 board exams. Consequently, board exams administered by the Central Board of Secondary Education will have a higher number of multiple-choice and analytical questions from 2022. The government will release a detailed policy framework on the changes in board exams by the end of this year
- With holistic education one of the key goals of NEP 2020, multidisciplinary streams have started across institutes. This means that engineering colleges will not only offer technical courses but also commerce and humanity subjects.
- The education ministry has asked all higher education institutes to offer a wide array of courses across streams in order to have a diverse student population. IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi, IIT Madras and IIT Roorkee are among many such institutes that offer courses beyond traditional engineering.
- NEP 2020 allows the top 100 universities in India to offer online degree courses to make them affordable and improve accessibility.Following this, online platforms are offering a range of courses in partnership with institutes.Last year, upGrad announced e-degree courses including Bachelor of Business Administration, Master of Computer Applications and Master of Business Administration with Jamia Hamdard in New Delhi.
- Some early work has started on this front. Flexible entry and exit grants academic credit for partially completed courses. A student who quits a degree course after one year gets a certificate. A diploma is earned after two years and a degree after three/four years.IIT Madras has launched an online Bachelor of Science course in programming and data science that offers the flexibility of getting a degree or a diploma.
Issues plaguing the new National Education Policy:
- The tension between NEP’s ambition and facts on the ground is evident . The call for greater autonomy to higher educational institutions is undercut by the fact that several universities continue to function without vice-chancellors.
- The NEP asks for the highest priority to literacy and numeracy but the government has slashed the school education budget by almost Rs 5,000 crore; higher education has suffered a Rs 1,000 crore cut. Without financial resources and committed people to take ownership of institutions and policy, it will be hard to walk the talk.
- While the PM hailed the transition to online learning, the pandemic’s unkindest cut has been in deepening the inequality in access to education. Technology connects people, but it has limitations as far as teaching and learning are concerned. This crisis has made us reflect on the inequality not only in bandwidth, and devices, but also in the fact that the parents do not have the time or ability to support their children in this venture.
- The NEP forcefully lends its weight to the idea of institutional autonomy. But critical thinking cannot be decreed into existence. It needs an enabling eco-system, which is sadly missing. The most recent instance of a Madhya Pradesh police superintendent, acting on the complaints of ABVP, forcing a university to exit a webinar because it disapproved of some of the speakers is an illustration of the shrinking of the campus as a space for ideas and creativity.
- Due to schools being closed ,the big shifts did not take place in areas of thematic learning or multiple pedagogical approaches.
- The traditional issues hampering education such as capacity of teachers, lack of infrastructure at rural level, lack of quality internet in rural areas are all the issues which needs to be worked on.
The New National Education Policy is still very new to evaluate on its implementation and specially in light of corona pandemic where schools and colleges have mostly been shut.Given this the progress made on regional language, multidisciplinary approach, focus on new topics such as artificial intelligence and going away from board pattern of examination is commendable.Further the broader aims of capacity building of teachers and focusing on how to learn should be paid greater attention for a creative and capable youth population.