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Diabetes

  • IASbaba
  • October 2, 2021
  • 0
UPSC Articles
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Diabetes

Part of: Prelims and GS – II – Health 

Context A first-of-its kind report of long-term survivors of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) from India, a multi-centric study was published in the peer-reviewed journal Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics. 

What is diabetes? 

  • Diabetes is a Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar, or glucose), or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
  • Type I diabetes: It mostly affects children of age 14-16 years. This type occurs when the body fails to produce sufficient insulin. They must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.
  • Type 2 diabetes: While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did. The population with 45 and above age group is the most affected with it.
    • This is the most common type of diabetes and it has strong links with obesity.
  • Diabetes affects the five major organs – Kidney, Heart, Blood vessels, Nervous System, and Eyes (retina).
  • Responsible factors: Unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, tobacco use, etc.

Do you know? 

  • Individuals with T1D have increased morbidity and excess premature mortality compared to those without diabetes 
  • Their life expectancy is reduced by an estimated 15-20 years, even with the life-saving insulin to their assistance
  • India is home to more than 95,000 children with T1D, reported to be the highest in the world, according to the 9th International Diabetes Federation Atlas. 

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