Conserving Marine Resources
Part of: Prelims and Mains GS-III: Conservation
Government of India has undertaken several initiatives focusing on the conservation of coastal and marine resources through implementation of law and continuous monitoring.
- The Wild Life Protection Act of India (1972) provides legal protection to many marine animals. There are total of 31 major Marine Protected Areas in India covering coastal areas that have been notified under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
- The National Committee on mangroves, wetlands and coral reefs constituted in 1993 advice the Government on relevant policies and programmes regarding marine species.
- The Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification (1991 and later versions) prohibit developmental activities and disposal of wastes in the fragile coastal ecosystems.
- The Biological Diversity Act of India, 2002 and the Biological Diversity Rules 2004, and the guidelines thereof advise the Government on matters related to the protection and conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use and equitable sharing of its components, Intellectual Property Rights, etc.
- Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY): for sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India. Two of the key objectives of the scheme are (a) harnessing of fisheries potential in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner and (b) Robust fisheries management and regulatory framework.
- The Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE), an attached office of Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) is mandated with the management strategies development for marine living resources through ecosystem monitoring and modelling activities.
- Involvement of local communities is often seen as an integral part of preserving the marine resources. CMLRE is implementing a national R&D programme on Marine Living Resources (MLR) with an inbuilt component on Societal Services to support the fisher folks of Lakshadweep Islands. The societal services initiative intends to enhance the ornamental and baitfish stocks in the wild. Under the program, CMLRE has organised a series of hands on trainings on “Marine ornamental fish breeding and rearing at Lakshadweep Islands”.
- Under the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) scheme of Department of Fisheries, there are provisions for encouraging sustainable marine fisheries activities, development of fisheries management plans, development of Integrated Modern Coastal Fishing Villages, promotion of Sagar Mitra, installation of bio-toilets in fishing vessels, communication and tracking devices, livelihood support during fish ban period to fisher families etc. for conservation of fisheries resources.
Note: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
- An MPA is a marine protected area that provides protection for all or part of its natural resources.
- Certain activities within an MPA are limited or prohibited to meet specific conservation, habitat protection, ecosystem monitoring, or fisheries management objectives.
News Source: PIB