2. How did developments during the interwar period on the international front affect the freedom struggle in India? (10 Marks)
अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मोर्चे पर युद्ध के दौरान हुई घटनाओं ने भारत में स्वतंत्रता संग्राम को किस प्रकार प्रभावित किया?
Candidates need to directly address how interwar period created a atmosphere at international stages. Then straightaway write about the impact of interwar period on Indian National struggle.
It has been criticised that the interwar period (1919 to 1939) was not a phase of reconstruction but that of global politics reshaping itself for a second war. International factors during interwar period and many other, no doubt helped to create the sort of atmosphere which affected the Indian freedom struggle.
Impact of interwar period on freedom struggle:
Inter-war years lead to the rise of 2nd leg of Indian National Movement, it prepared a firm and deep base in for Nationalistic activities in India, the culmination of various International influences, along with rising mass participation in India.
Appeasement was the policy followed by the British, avoiding war with aggressive powers such as Japan give opportunity to INA.
The situation really began to drift out of control with the onset of the economic crisis, or the Great Depression 1929.
Formation of USSR after the war also led to the rise of communism in India with the formation of CPI and imparted a socialist influence on the freedom struggle.
As a result of Russian Revolution of 1917, militants got inspired by socialism-which made people realize the ill effects of capitalism. It brought most ignored sections like peasants to the forefront later many peasants movement impacted imperialism.
Myth of the indestructible power of the British Empire in India as the British faced many humiliating defeats during the war. This raised the self-confidence among Indians.
Under international circumstances British government realized that the participation of the Indian National Congress was necessary in any discussion on the future of constitutional government in India.
Lack of Focus of British on its colonies- as they were on the back foot to defend themselves because of their reducing impact.
The Labour Party, which had come to power in Britain after the end of the World War, lifted the ban on the Congress and elections were declared in India which paved the way for the powerful Indian leaders to come back in the game.
The British, facing such grave problems back home, did not have the energy and resources to hold India and the enthusiastic Indians who were determined to achieve independence.
The American government pressurized Britain to grant India its due independence because the Allied Powers stood for freedom and democracy.
Thus, Interwar period had far reaching effects on India’s freedom movement- it lead to the strengthening of the foundation laid by the Moderates and acted as the link between initial efforts and final culmination to Independence.