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SYNOPSIS [12th April,2022] Day 72: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. Adherence to fundamentalism has little correlation with one’s education or socioeconomic status. Critically comment.
Candidates need to write about the fundamentalism and explain it. Then provide both side of arguments fundamentalism due to lack of education and worst socioeconomic conditions also highlight other factors leading to fundamentalism.
Fundamentalism refers to one’s unwavering belief in the infallibility of the religious / philosophical scriptures in all matters of faith, religion and philosophy. The attachment or belief is such strong that the believer takes a militant stand sometimes.
Fundamentalism due to lack of education or poor socioeconomic status:
- Many fundamentalists are characterised as intolerant of those with views in opposition of their own or those with secular beliefs this is due to lack of secular education.
- Lack of quality education leading to blindly follow rules and regulations and beliefs propounded by religion. For example madrasa or gurukuls or church based study.
- Uneven development, class divisions, poverty and unemployment aggravates insecurity in the common men which make them vulnerable to political manipulation.
- The failure to adopt the scientific and technological education and thus, insufficient representation in the public service, industry and trade etc has led to the feeling of relative deprivation among marginalized section due to which they get influenced.
Fundamentalism despite good economic status and education:
- Many top highly educated personalities have propounded the fundamentalism such as Osama bin laden.
- Large number of well educated people support and speak the same way as the fundamentalist leaders speak and advocate against the scientific thought or new ideas.
- It is often accused of sensationalism and disseminates rumours by social media and mainstream channels which sometimes resulted into further communal tension.
- Technological advances, such as TV, cable television and satellite transmission, have facilitated the rise of ‘e-religion’.
Today, religious fundamentalism poses greatest threat to the peace and development of society and nation. Government should adopt multipronged approach like equitable development of minorities, poor population, strengthening education system moral values, teaching humane essence of different religions, creation and broadening access to employment opportunities to all.
2. Do you think economic and political instability in the neighboring countries can create security threats for India? Substantiate your views.
Students are expected to give basic information on neighborhood instability like Pakistan and Sri Lanka and explain how it will impact the India’s security what will be threats.
Sri Lanka is facing its worst-ever economic downturn while Pakistan is witnessing an intense political struggle. While Taliban hardliners continue to tighten their iron grip on Afghanistan there is civil war-like situation in Myanmar this type of surrounding can impact our security.
Economic and political instability and threats to security of India:
- India is expected to closely monitor the developments in neighborhood given its long history of issues with its neighbour.
- With socio-cultural identities cutting across the borders and recent instability it is a bit obvious that there are some contentious issues with the neighbours.
- Pakistan actively supporting various terrorist groups to carry out another Pulwama-like incident in the India with new establishment it can push such acts more.
- Political instability and disorder in its periphery impacts India’s security directly or indirectly. Proxy war between India and Pakistan adds to this security risk.
- Instability situation can give rise to active support to radicalise the youth of not just Kashmir but also Punjab and Northeast India is very detrimental to India’s demographic dividend.
- The issue of drug smuggling is also destroying the social fabric of Indian society due Pakistan Myanmar vicinity and to India being in the middle of the ‘Golden Crescent’ and ‘Golden triangle’.
- One major threat perception is related to the Rohingya Muslim community and Tamilians entering Indian borders illegally due to persecution and difficulties in their home country this can create refugee crisis.
- The situation has worsened due to the changed demographic profile of many Border States and shift in ethnic balance of communities as a result of illegal migration for example Assam.
India should show the farsightedness for regional integration and multilateralism. Since changing geography is not possible India should be prepared for any instability and unforeseen adventure by the neighbouring country while also exploiting all the diplomatic and peaceful channels to resolve disputes.
3. Do you think the shifting global focus towards Europe as a fallout of ongoing Ukraine crisis can create a security void in the Indo-Pacific region? What will be its possible implications for India? Discuss.
Candidates need to give their views on the possibility of shifting global focus towards Europe as a fallout of ongoing Ukraine crisis in creating a security void in the Indo-Pacific region. Also discuss be its possible implications for India.
The war in Ukraine and the ensuing economic sanctions imposed on Russia will cause far bigger shifts for Europe’s economy and markets than previous crises like the coronavirus pandemic. Inflation, reduced growth, and in some countries even another recession is just some of the risks facing the economies of emerging Europe as a result of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
The shifting global focus towards Europe as a fallout of ongoing Ukraine crisis and creation of a security void in the Indo-Pacific region
- In light of Russia’s unprovoked invasion of Ukraine, European leaders have been forced to rapidly accelerate plans to reduce their outsized dependence on Russian energy.
- Attention has focused on the sea change in European attitudes to security threats, the defence spending that Russia’s aggression has produced, and the sobering challenge Russia’s invasion poses to accepted international rules and norms.
- But the Ukraine crisis has wider implications, affecting the Indo-Pacific region.
- Although the crisis in Ukraine directly affects European security, its effects will ripple across the Indo-Pacific region.
- China is unlikely to follow Russia’s power play and attack any of its neighbours any time soon.
- However, Russia’s willingness to wage open war on Ukraine will weigh on the minds of Asian policymakers as they make decisions about boosting their own defence spending, seeking security guarantees from the U.S., and joining multilateral security coalitions.
- The war in Ukraine, now in its seventh week, defence cooperation and several other aspects that are at the heart of the bilateral ties emerged as the focus at the talks that come as the world grapples with challenges emerging due to one of the worst wars in Europe in decades and the pandemic that started two years ago.
- Russia’s action has highlighted the limits of NATO’s reach and resolve in the European theatre, leaving one wondering how far NATO, or its member states, would be willing to involve themselves in a conflict in the Indo-Pacific region where most Western nations have fewer stakes.
Its possible implications for India
- India has become adept at balancing its relationships with major powers such as the U.S., China and Russia.
- Rapidly expanding ties and growing defence relationship between India and US, and India joining QUAD group led by the US has led to a strategic shift in Russia’s foreign policy, pushing it to align with China.
- It also has a trilateral relationship with the U.S. and Japan and another one with Russia and China.
- India has been recently diversifying its defence relations with US, Israel, etc, leading to a reduction in Russia’s share of Indian defence imports.
- Both India and Russia have a difference of opinion in understanding the concept of the Indo-Pacific.
- Russia opposes the term Indo-Pacific as the term is primarily a US-led initiative aimed to contain China and Russia.
- Russia does not accept the concept of QUAD. Instead, Russia supports the concept of Asia Pacific.
The Indo-Pacific strategy may be an afterthought as the Ukrainian crisis unfolds. Nevertheless, the conflict in Europe will have a bearing on how Asian policymakers think about their own security in the wake of Chinese assertiveness and Beijing’s sovereignty claims in Asia. India should pursue and facilitate Russia’s engagement in the Indo-Pacific. Russia’s active engagement in the region would contribute to making the Indo-Pacific truly “free and inclusive”.