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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 13th August 2022

  • IASbaba
  • August 14, 2022
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Essential Commodities Act

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs
  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance); GS 3 (Economy)

In News: With tur dal prices surging since mid-July and reports coming in of some traders creating artificial supply squeeze by restricting sales, the Centre has invoked the Essential Commodities Act of 1955 to ask States to monitor and verify the stocks available with such traders.

  • Tur prices have risen since mid-July amid slow progress in kharif sowing as compared to last year due to excess rainfalls and water logging conditions in parts of major Tur growing states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, the Department of Consumer Affairs has noted in its rationale for the directive.

Essential Commodities Act 1955:

Background

  • The ECA Act 1955, was legislated at a time when the country was facing a scarcity of foodstuffs due to persistent low levels of foodgrains production.
  • The country was dependent on imports and assistance (such as wheat import form the US under PL-480) to feed the population.
  • To prevent hoarding and black marketing of foodstuffs, the Essential Commodities Act was enacted in 1955.

Features

  • Objective: The ECA 1955 is used to curb inflation by allowing the Centre to enable control by state governments of trade in a wide variety of commodities.
  • There is no specific definition of essential commodities in the Essential Commodities Act, 1955.
  • Section 2(A) states that an “essential commodity” means a commodity specified in the Schedule of the Act.
  • The Centre, if it is satisfied that it is necessary to do so in public interest, can notify an item as essential, in consultation with state governments.
  • Legal Jurisdiction: The Act gives powers to the central government to add or remove a commodity in the Schedule.
  • Implementing Agency: The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, implements the Act.
  • Impact: By declaring a commodity as essential, the government can control the production, supply, and distribution of that commodity, and impose a stock limit.

Issues Related to Essential Commodities Act 1955:

  • The Economic Survey 2019-20 highlighted that government intervention under the ECA 1955 often distorted agricultural trade while being totally ineffective in curbing inflation.
  • Such intervention does enable opportunities for rent-seeking and harassment. Rent-seeking is a term used by economists to describe unproductive income, including from corruption.
  • Traders tend to buy far less than their usual capacity and farmers often suffer huge losses during surplus harvests of perishables.
  • This led to farmers being unable to get better prices due to lack of investment in cold storage, warehouses, processing and export.
  • Owing to these issues, the Parliament passed the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020. However, due to farmers’ protest the Government had to repeal this law.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to the ‘Prohibition of Benami Property Transactions Act, 1988 (PBPT Act), consider the following statements: (2017)

  1. A property transaction is not treated as a benami transaction if the owner of the property is not aware of the transaction.
  2. Properties held benami are liable for confiscation by the Government.
  3. The Act provides for three authorities for investigations but does not provide for any appellate mechanism.

Which of the statements .given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

UN Resolution 1267

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs

In News: China has blocked a proposal by India and the US at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to designate Abdul Rauf Azhar, brother of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) chief Masood Azhar and deputy chief of the Pakistan-based proscribed terror group, as a “global terrorist”.

  • Azhar, referred to as Abdul Rauf Asghar in UN documents, was involved in the planning and execution of several terror attacks, including the hijacking of Indian Airlines flight IC-814 (1999), attack on Parliament (2001), and attack on the Indian Air Force base in Pathankot (2016).
  • A proposal was moved by India, co-sponsored by the US, to list Abdul Rauf Asghar in the UN Security Council 1267 Sanctions Committee.
  • China has, however, placed a technical hold on the proposal.
  • All other 14 member states of the UN Security Council were supportive of the listing proposal
  • Listing him as a global terrorist would subject him to assets freeze, travel ban and arms embargo.

What is UNSC 1267 committee?

  • Article 41 of the United Nations Charter gives the Security Council the authority to use a variety of measures to enforce its decisions.
  • The Council regularly creates subsidiary organs to support or implement these measures.
  • Among the most common are those measures that are known as “sanctions”, which are generally supported by a Committee, as well as Panels/Groups of Experts or other mechanisms to monitor implementation of the sanctions.
  • By resolution 1267 (1999) of 15 October 1999, the Security Council established a Committee to oversee the implementation of targeted sanctions measures against designated individuals, entities and aircraft that were owned, controlled, leased or operated by the Taliban.
  • The measures were subsequently modified, particularly by resolutions 1333 (2000) and 1390 (2002), to include an assets freeze, travel ban and an arms embargo affecting designated individuals and entities associated with Usama bin Laden, and the Taliban wherever they are located.
  • By resolution 2253 (2015) of 17 December 2015, the Security Council decided to expand the listing criteria to include individuals and entities supporting the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
  • It comprises all permanent and non-permanent members of the UNSC.
  • The 1267 list of terrorists is a global list, with a UNSC stamp.

What is the process by which people are listed under UNSC 1267?

  • Any member state can submit a proposal for listing an individual, group, or entity.
  • The 1267 Committee meets as required with a notice of four working days.
  • Decisions on listing and de-listing are adopted by consensus.
  • The proposal is sent to all the members, and if no member objects within five working days, the proposal is adopted. An “objection” means curtains for the proposal.
  • Any member of the Committee may also put a “technical hold” on the proposal, and ask for more information from the proposing member state. During this time, other members may also place their own holds.
  • The matter remains on the “pending” list of the Committee until such time as the member state that has placed the hold decides to turn its decision into an “objection”, or until all those who have placed holds remove them within a timeframe laid down by the Committee.
  • Pending issues must be resolved in six months, but the member state that has placed the hold may ask for an additional three months. At the end of this period, if an objection is not placed, the matter is considered approved.

Any proposal for listing must meet set criteria:

  • The proposal must include acts or activities indicating the proposed individual/group/entity had participated “in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing, or perpetrating of acts or activities” linked to “ISIL (Da’esh), Al-Qaida or any cell, affiliate, splinter group or derivative thereof”.

Concerns

  • This is not the first time that China has obstructed the listing of terrorists in the 1267 Sanctions Committee.
  • In June this year, China placed on hold a joint proposal by India and the US to list the deputy chief of the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT), Abdul Rehman Makki, in the sanctions list.
  • Double standards and continuing politicisation have rendered the credibility of the sanctions regime at an all-time low.

Way Forward

  • An effective functioning of the Sanctions Committees need to become more transparent, accountable and objective.
  • The practice of placing holds and blocks on listing requests without giving any justification must end.

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With Reference to the “United Nations Credentials Committee”, consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. It is a committee set up by the UN Security Council and works under its supervision.
  2. It traditionally meets in March, June and September every year.
  3. It assesses the credentials of all UN members before submitting a report to the General Assembly for approval.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 3 only
  2. 1 and 3
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 2


1947 Boundary Commission

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – History

In News: It was on August 17, 1947, two days after Independence, that the award of the Boundary Commissions for the partition of Punjab and Bengal was announced.

  • The award caused much anguish to the people of the two provinces and also to the governments of India and Pakistan.
  • The then Law minister of India, B R Ambedkar, and Minister of Industry and Supply, Syama Prasad Mukherjee, proposed to take the matter of the Chittagong Hill Tracts to the UN (the UNO).

What were the two Boundary Commissions?

  • In June 1947, Sir Cyril John Radcliffe, a British lawyer, was made the Chairman of two boundary commissions of Punjab and Bengal and given the task to draw up the new borders of India and Pakistan.
  • He was given a period of five weeks to complete this task and arrived in India in July 1947.
  • The boundary commissions of Punjab and Bengal also included two nominees each of the Indian National Congress and Muslim League respectively.
  • The Punjab commission had Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan, Justice Teja Singh, Justice Din Mohammad and Justice Muhammad Munir as members.
  • The Bengal commission comprised Justice CC Biswas, Justice BK Mukherjee, Justice Abu Saleh Akram and Justice SA Rehman.
  • The Boundary Commissions award was made public on August 17, 1947.

What discussion took place with regard to the awards?

The documents in national archives include minutes of a meeting held at Government house, New Delhi at 5 pm on August 16, 1947, a day before the public announcement of award

Bengal

  • The minutes of the meeting show that Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru protested against the award of Chittagong hill Tracts to Pakistan (East Pakistan, now Bangladesh).
  • Lord Mountbatten defended the award saying that the Chittagong district had close economic ties with the hill tracts and that the port required proper supervision of the Karnaphuli river which runs through the hill tracts. He made a suggestion of compromise by re-adjustment of territory which was rejected by Nehru and the Liaquat Ali Khan.

Punjab

  • Nehru said that he considered that the award of boundary commission in the Punjab was likely to have a bad effect among the Sikhs, who presented a particularly difficult problem.
  • Sardar Baldev Singh said that the reaction to the award would be very unfavourable on the Sikh mind.
  • Liaquat Ali Khan said it would have a similar unfavourable reaction among the Muslims.
  • He emphasised that complete religious freedom will be allowed.
  • Sardar Patel’s view was that the only solution to the Punjab award was a transfer of population on a large scale.
  • Mountbatten said that he had spoken to Jinnah about Nankana Sahib.
  • “Mr Jinnah had stated that he had it in mind to give the Sikhs any religious assurances that were required in connection with their Gurdwara there. The Governor General suggested that a specific statement on Nankana Sahib might be made by the Pakistan government at the same time as the issue of the boundary commission award.

On Bengal award, what was BR Ambedkar and SP Mukherjee’s note?

  • The joint note of the two ministers pointed out that the decision of the award in some vital respects is “unjust and unfair” and against the fundamental policy of the partition and also the terms of reference.
  • The joint note delves in great detail about the award pertaining to area and population of Bengal, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Jalpaiguri, Khulna, Faridpur and Barisal.
  • Both ministers would in conclusion that the award in Bengal was unjust and arbitrary and will be a source of bitterness and strife now and in future.
  • We therefore lodge our protest against the award and cannot accept it as final and conclusive.
  • We propose to take up the matter with the Pakistan Dominion immediately. We shall make an attempt to open negotiations with that government and see if any amicable re-settlement is possible.
  • If not, we reserve to ourselves the right to treat this as an inter dominion dispute and refer it to the UNO, claiming the inclusion of the areas outlined above into West Bengal.

Must Read: Popular slogans raised during Indian independence movement

Source: Indian Express


National Action Plan for Mechanised Sanitation Ecosystem (NAMASTE)

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Government Schemes – Current Affairs
  • Mains – GS 1 (Society); GS 2 (Governance)

In News: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJ&E) is now preparing to undertake a nationwide survey to enumerate all people engaged in hazardous cleaning of sewers and septic tanks, an activity that has led to at least 351 deaths since 2017.

  • Drawing a distinction between this work and manual scavenging, the Ministry insisted that the practice of manual scavenging no longer takes place in the country as all manual scavengers had been accounted for and enrolled into the rehabilitation scheme.
  • The enumeration exercise, soon to be conducted across 500 AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation) cities, is part of the Union government’s National Action Plan for Mechanised Sanitation Ecosystem (NAMASTE), which will streamline the process of rehabilitating sanitation workers and eventually merge with and replace the Self-Employment Scheme for the Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS), which was started in 2007.
  • Explaining that the enumeration of people engaged in hazardous cleaning of septic tanks and sewers would be the next step, ministry said that they will now set up Programme Monitoring Units (PMUs) for the 500 AMRUT cities, who will be at the frontlines of carrying out the exercise.
  • Eventually, the idea is to also link these sanitation workers to the Swachhta Udyami Yojana, through which the workers will be able to own sanitation machines themselves and the government will ensure that at the municipality level, the work keeps coming in.

National Action Plan for Mechanised Sanitation Ecosystem (NAMASTE)

  • The government has developed the NAMASTE scheme—to clean septic tanks and sewers.
  • The NAMASTE project, is a joint project of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

The project aims to achieve the following outcomes:

  • Zero fatalities in sanitation work in India.
  • All sanitation work to be performed by skilled workers.
  • No sanitation workers should come in direct contact with human faecal matter.
  • Sanitation workers are to be collectivized into SHGs and are empowered to run sanitation enterprises.
  • All Sewer and Septic tank sanitation workers (SSWs) have access to alternative livelihoods.
  • Strengthened supervisory and monitoring systems at national, state and ULB levels to ensure enforcement and monitoring of safe sanitation work.
  • Increased awareness amongst sanitation services seekers (individuals and institutions) to seek services from registered and skilled sanitation workers.

Swachhta Udyami Yojana

  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment launched the Swachhta Udyami Yojana (SUY) on 02nd October 2014.
  • This Scheme has twin objective of cleanliness and providing livelihood to Safai Karamcharis and liberated Manual Scavengers to achieve the overall goal of “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan”
  • The Swachhta Udyami Yojana extends financial assistance for Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Pay and Use Community Toilets in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Mode and Procurement and Operation of Sanitation related Vehicles.
  • The scheme also provides for training the workers in the use of these machines, during which time a stipend of up to ₹3,000 per month will be provided.
  • The scheme will also provide for sanitation workers to train for and go into any of the approved list of alternative occupations in sectors like agriculture, services, electronics assembling, handicrafts and so on.

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Which one of the following is a purpose of ‘UDAY’, a scheme of the Government? (2016)

  1. Providing technical and financial assistance to start-up entre-preneurs in the field of renewable sources of energy
  2. Providing electricity to every household iv the country by 2018
  3. Replacing the coal-based power plants with natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind and tidal power plants over a period of time.
  4. Providing for financial turnaround and revival of power distribution companies

India's NATO Engagement

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – International Relations
  • Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

In News: New Delhi held its first political dialogue with the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in Brussels on December 12, 2019.

  • The Indian delegation attempted to assess cooperation on regional and global issues of mutual interest.

What is the significance of India’s talks with NATO?

  • India’s talks with NATO hold significance given that the North Atlantic alliance has been engaging both China and Pakistan in bilateral dialogue.
  • Given the role of Beijing and Islamabad in New Delhi’s strategic imperatives, reaching out to NATO would add a key dimension to India’s growing engagement with US and Europe.
  • Until December 2019, NATO had held nine rounds of talks with Beijing.
  • NATO had also been in political dialogue and military cooperation with Pakistan; it opened selective training for Pakistani officers and its military delegation visited Pakistan in November 2019 for military staff talks.
  • The first round of dialogue was finalised for December 12, 2019 by the Indian mission in Brussels after it received a draft agenda for the meeting from NATO.
  • Engaging with NATO in a political dialogue would provide New Delhi an opportunity to bring about a balance in NATO’s perceptions about the situation in regions and issues of concerns to India.

Was there any common ground?

  • In New Delhi’s assessment, there was a convergence in the perspectives of both India and NATO on China, terrorism, and Afghanistan, including Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan.

The first dialogue, it is learnt, revealed three critical issues on which India expected only limited common ground with NATO:

  1. From NATO’s perspective, it was not China, but Russia whose aggressive actions continued to be the main threat to Euro-Atlantic security, and that NATO had faced difficulties to convene meetings of NATO-Russia Council due to Russian refusal to place issues such as Ukraine and Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty on the agenda.
  2. Given the divergence among NATO countries, its view on China was seen as mixed; while it did deliberate on China’s rise, the conclusion was that China presented both a challenge and an opportunity.
  3. In Afghanistan, NATO saw the Taliban as a political entity, which was not in line with India’s stance.

However, the Indian side felt maritime security was a principal area of conversation in the future, given a substantial common ground with NATO.

What are the next steps?

  • On its part, the NATO delegation have expressed keenness to continue engagement with India on a mutually agreed agenda.
  • In NATO’s view, India, given its geo-strategic position and unique perspectives on various issues, was relevant to international security and could be an important partner in informing the alliance about India’s own region and beyond.
  • As far as India is concerned, it was felt New Delhi may consider proposals emanating from NATO, if any, on bilateral cooperation in areas of interest to India, based on the progress achieved in the initial rounds.

Must Read: NATO

Source: Indian Express


Drought

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 3 (Disaster Management)

In News: Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh are experiencing the worst monsoon season of the century.

  • Food and water scarcity are going to be the real issues in the country’s major rice producing states, with a potential to affect India’s kharif produce this year.
  • Between June 1 and August 12, the rainfall recorded over Jharkhand was 371.9mm against a normal of 627.6mm, a 41 per cent seasonal deficit. This is the lowest ever rainfall recorded over Jharkhand (June to August) since 1901, the IMD’s rainfall data stated.
  • For Uttar Pradesh, too, the picture is grim, as the state has recorded only 251.7mm of the seasonal average of 449.1mm till August 12.
  • UP is the most rain deficient Indian state this year and has remained so since the start of the monsoon season.

  • In a departure from the norm of overflowing Ganges and flooding, the 2022 monsoon has been anything but normal for Bihar. During the ongoing season, Bihar has recorded 376.5mm versus a normal of 602.6mm, a deficit of 38 per cent, till August 12.
  • Overall, the month of July was the driest over the East and Northeast India since 1903; it ended with a 45 per cent rain deficit.
  • Since the monsoon onset, Manipur, Tripura and West Bengal remain in the rainfall ‘deficient’ category.
  • Only Assam and Meghalaya, Sub-Himalayan West Bengal and Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in the east and northeast India regions have recorded normal rainfall this monsoon season.

So, what are the causes for rain deficit?

  • This season, only three low pressure systems developed in the Bay of Bengal, mostly off the coast of Odisha.
  • None of these systems impacted Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh or Bihar.
  • Thus, one of the two rain-bearing causes remained out of favour for these states.

Monsoon Trough

  • In addition, this year, the monsoon trough — an east-west low-pressure area extending from the heat low over Pakistan to head Bay of Bengal – remained to the south of its normal position for majority of the days in July and in August, so far.
  • The low pressure systems did not move along Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Such unfavourable conditions contributed to high rainfall deficits throughout the season.
  • The monsoon trough’s location, oscillation, and duration over a specific location, all directly affect the rainfall activity over the regions exactly to the south of its position.
  • That is, when it is located to the south of its normal position, there is active or vigorous rainfall over most parts of central, peninsular India regions. When it shifts to the north of its normal position or lays along the Himalayan foothills, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and the northeastern states benefit.

So, what should farmers do?

  • In UP and Jharkhand, the Agriculture Meteorology division has suggested the use of short duration rice varieties and have encouraged cultivation of red gram.
  • Farmers have been encouraged to opt for inter-cropping.

National Disaster Management Act, 2005

  • The NDM Act was passed by the government of India in 2005 for the efficient management of disasters and other matters connected to it.

Objective:

  • To manage disasters, including preparation of mitigation strategies, capacity-building and more.
  • Definition of a “disaster” in Section 2 (d) of the NDM Act states that a disaster means a “catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or manmade causes.

Major Features

Nodal Agency:

  • The Act designates the Ministry of Home Affairs as the nodal ministry for steering the overall national disaster management.
  • Institutional Structure: It puts into place a systematic structure of institutions at the national, state and district levels.

The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

  • It is tasked with laying down disaster management policies and ensuring timely and effective response mechanisms.

The National Executive Committee (NEC)

  • It is constituted under Section 8 of the NDM Act to assist the National Disaster Management Authority in the performance of its functions.
  • The NEC is responsible for the preparation of the National Disaster Management Plan for the whole country and to ensure that it is reviewed and updated annually.

The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)

  • It is an institute for training and capacity development programs for managing natural calamities.

National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)

  • It refers to trained professional units that are called upon for specialized response to disasters.

State and District level:

  • The Act also provides for state and district level authorities responsible for, among other things, drawing plans for implementation of national plans and preparing local plans.
  • State Disaster Management Authority
  • District Disaster Management Authority.

Finance:

  • It contains the provisions for financial mechanisms such as the creation of funds for emergency response, National Disaster Response Fund and similar funds at the state and district levels.

Other Features:

  • The Act also devotes several sections various civil and criminal liabilities resulting from violation of provisions of the act.
  • Under Section 51 of the Act, anyone refusing to comply with orders is liable for punishment with imprisonment up to one year, or fine, or both. In case this refusal leads to death of people, the person liable shall be punished with imprisonment up to two years.

Drought in England

In News: Drought declared in parts of England

  • The government of England formally declared parts of England to be in drought on as the country faces a period of prolonged hot and dry weather.
  • The prolonged dry conditions, with some areas of the country not receiving significant rainfall all summer, have caused the National Drought Group to declare an official drought.
  • This means water rationing may take place across the country.

Source: Indian Express

Indian Express


Moving policy away from population control

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Syllabus

  • Mains – GS 1 (Society)

Context: India’s focus should be on investment in human capital, on older adults living with dignity, and on healthy population ageing.

  • The United Nations’ World Population Prospects (WPP), 2022, forecasts India becoming the most populous country by 2023, surpassing China, with a 140 crore population.
  • This is four times the population India had at the time of Independence in 1947 (34 crore).
  • Now, at the third stage of the demographic transition, and experiencing a slowing growth rate due to constant low mortality and rapidly declining fertility, India has 17.5% of the world’s population.
  • As per the latest WPP, India will reach 150 crore by 2030 and 166 crore by 2050.

Growing Population

  • In its 75-year journey since Independence, the country has seen a sea change in its demographic structure.
  • In the 1960s, India had a population growth rate of over 2%.
  • At the current rate of growth, this is expected to fall to 1% by 2025.
  • However, there is a long way to go for the country to achieve stability in population. This is expected to be achieved no later than 2064 and is projected to be at 170 crore (as mentioned in WPP 2022).
  • India reached a significant demographic milestone as, for the first time, its total fertility rate (TFR) slipped to two.
  • However, even after reaching the replacement level of fertility, the population will continue to grow for three to four decades owing to the population momentum (large cohorts of women in their reproductive age groups).
  • Several States have reached a TFR of two except for Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur and Meghalaya.
  • All these States face bottlenecks in achieving a low TFR.
  • These include high illiteracy levels, rampant child marriage, high levels of under-five mortality rates, a low workforce participation of women, and low contraceptive usage compared to other States.
  • A majority of women in these States do not have much of an economic or decisive say in their lives.
  • Without ameliorating the status of women in society (quality of life), only lopsided development is achievable.

Demographic dividend

  • A larger population is perceived to mean greater human capital, higher economic growth and improved standards of living.
  • In the last seven decades, the share of the working age population has grown from 50% to 65%, resulting in a remarkable decline in the dependency ratio.
  • As in the WPP 2022, India will have one of the largest workforces globally, i.e., in the next 25 years, one in five working-age group persons will be living in India.
  • This working-age bulge will keep growing till the mid-2050s, and India must make use of it.

Obstacles

There are several obstacles to harnessing this demographic dividend.

Health

  • Every other woman in the reproductive age group in India is anaemic, and every third child below five is stunted.
  • India stands 101 out of 116 nations in the Global Hunger Index
  • India is a global disease burden leader as the share of NCDs has almost doubled since the 1990s, the cause of more than 62% of total deaths.
  • India is home to over eight crore people with diabetes.
  • Further, more than a quarter of global deaths due to air pollution occur in India alone.
  • In contrast, India’s health-care infrastructure is highly inadequate and inefficient.
  • India’s public health financing is low, varying between 1% and 1.5% of GDP, which is among the lowest percentages in the world.
  • The share of India’s elderly population is now increasing and is expected to be 12% by 2050. After 2050, the elderly population will increase sharply.

Sex-Ratio

  • Another demographic concern of independent India is the male-dominant sex ratio. In 1951, the country had a sex ratio of 946 females per 1,000 males.
  • In 2011, the sex ratio was 943 females per 1,000 males; by 2022, it is expected to be approximately 950 females per 1,000 males.
  • One in three girls missing globally due to sex selection (both pre-and post-natal), is from India — 46 million of the total 142 million missing girls.

Education and Employment

  • India’s labour force is constrained by the absence of women from the workforce; only a fourth of women are employed.
  • The quality of educational attainments is not up to the mark, and the country’s workforce badly lacks the basic skills required for the modernised job market.
  • Having the largest population with one of the world’s lowest employment rates is another enormous hurdle in reaping the ‘demographic dividend’.

Way Forward

The focus of action should be on extensive investment in human capital, on older adults living with dignity, and on healthy population ageing. India should be prepared with suitable infrastructure, conducive social welfare schemes and massive investment in quality education and health. The focus should not be on population control anymore, instead, an augmentation of the quality of life should be the priority.

Source: The Hindu


Daily Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) Consider the following statements about Essential Commodities Act 1955

  1. The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, implements the Act.
  2. Central Government can notify an item as essential, in consultation with state governments.
  3. By declaring a commodity as essential, the government can control the production, supply, and distribution of that commodity.

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1 and 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements about NAMASTE scheme, recently seen in news

  1. It is a joint project of Ministry of External Affairs and the Ministry of Culture.
  2. The scheme aims to honor the NRIs and people of Indian origin, who strive for the enhancement of Indian culture abroad.

Choose the incorrect statements:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) which of the below given pairs is/are not correctly matched?

Popular Slogans Given By
Jai Hind Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel
Inquilab Zindabad Bhagat Singh
Quit India Yusuf Meherally

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 2

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’13th August 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.


ANSWERS FOR 12th August 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – b

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