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Compressed Bio Gas (CBG)

  • IASbaba
  • October 20, 2022
  • 0
Environment & Ecology
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Context: Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas and Housing & Urban Affairs inaugurated Asia’s largest Compressed Bio Gas (CBG) plant in Lehragaga, Sangrur, Punjab.

  • The Compressed Bio Gas (CBG) plant inaugurated in Sangrur is a step in achieving objectives of the Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) scheme.
  • This scheme was launched by Government of India in October 2018 to establish an ecosystem for production of Compressed Bio Gas (CBG) from various waste/ biomass sources in the country.
  • The scheme aims to empower and unleash the rural economy by supporting farmers, increase India’s domestic energy production and self-sufficiency and also reduce the air pollution, and help India lead the world toward a clean energy transition.

What is Compressed Bio Gas (CBG)?

  • Compressed Bio Gas (CBG) means the mixture of hydrocarbon gases and vapours consisting mainly of Methane in gaseous form, which has been produced by the decomposition of animal and plant waste, purified and compressed for use as an automotive fuel and industrial application.
  • Biogas can be compressed after removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, the same way as natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles.
  • Irrespective of technology, producing CBG from biomass involves a two-pronged approach:
    • Biogas is produced through anaerobic decomposition of biomass.
    • Since biogas contains 55 to 60 per cent methane, 40 to 45 per cent carbon dioxide (CO2) and trace amounts of hydrogen sulphide.
    • The second process involves purifying the gas to remove carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases to prepare CBG.
  • Chemically, CBG is the same as CNG — both are compressed methane — and has the same calorific value.
  • The difference is that while CNG is a by-product of petroleum, CBG can be produced from any biomass.
  • This makes CBG a commercially viable option as it can be directly used to replace CNG in transportation fuel.
  • Just like CNG, CBG too can be transported through cylinders or pipelines to retail outlets.
  • Its solid by-products can be used as bio-manure.
    • It is a rich source of silica that not only aids in the growth and yield of crops but also bestows immunity against many diseases and prevents toxic material uptake by plants such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and other heavy metals.
    • It can thus help reduce the requirement of chemical fertilisers.
  • The other by-product is CO2.
    • It can be tapped while purifying the biogas and used to produce liquid or solid CO2, which have high demand for food preservation or to be used in fire extinguishers.
  • CBG and its by-products hold the chance for a circular economic growth.

Source: PIB

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Which one of the following statements best describes the term ‘Social Cost of Carbon’?   It is a measure, in monetary value, of the  (2020)

  1. long-term damage done by a tonne of CO2, emissions in a given year
  2. requirement of fossil fuels for a country to provide goods and services to its citizens, based on the burning of those fuels
  3. efforts put in by a climate refugee to adapt to live in a new place
  4. contribution of an individual person to the carbon footprint on the planet Earth

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