Human-Animal conflict

  • IASbaba
  • October 12, 2022
  • 0
Environment & Ecology
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In News: Tiger T-104 was put down by the forest department of Bihar in the Valmiki Tiger Reserve according to protocol laid down by National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) for man-eater tigers, on the orders of the Chief Wildlife Warden (CWW) of Bihar.

  • The tiger in question was a three-year-old male, who had killed 10 people in the district.
  • Four years ago, Avni or T1, the man-eating tigress of Yavatmal district in Maharashtra, had been similarly eliminated after she mauled 13 people to death.
  • Tiger is listed under Schedule 1 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 (WLPA).

Valmiki Tiger Reserve (VTR):

  • It is the 18th tiger reserve of India, situated in the North West corner of the State of Bihar, in West Champaran district of the state.
  • In north, the protected areas are bordered by Nepal while the Indian state Uttar Pradesh bounds the Wildlife Sanctuary from western side.
  • VTR comprises of the Valmiki National Park and Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The pristine forest and wilderness of VTR is an excellent example of Himalayan Terai landscape.
  • The VTR forest area covers 901.07 sq km, out of which Wildlife Sanctuary is 880.78 sq km. and National Park is about 335.64 sq. km.
  • VTR is one of the eleven Level 1 Tiger Conservation Units (TCU) in the Indian sub- continent, where long term survival of Tigers (Panthera tigris) is possible.
  • The Reserve has also been designated as Important Bird Area (IBA) by the Indian Bird Conservation Network.
  • Fauna: Tigers, sloth bear, leopard, Indian gaur, hyena, wild dogs, blue bull, leopard cat, wildcat, fishing cat, Himalayan pan. The dolphin & gharial are present in Gandak river.
  • Flora: Bhabar Dun Sal Forest, Dry Siwalik Sal Forest, West Gangetic Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest.

Wildlife Protection Act (WPA) 1972:

  • In India, wildlife conservation and protection are maintained under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • The Act is a product of the times when environmental jurisprudence was rapidly developing in India with due credit to judicial activism.
  • The current Act is comprehensive and protects all kinds of animals – amphibians to birds, mammals, and reptiles and specified plants that cannot be destroyed and damaged without the approval of the government.
  • Powers to the State Governments: to protect and preserve animals and birds as per Section 3 including prohibition on the capturing, killing, selling, buying, possessing of the animals including their plumage (feathers) and to grant licenses.
  • The Central Government is empowered to appoint the Director of Wildlife Preservation.
  • The State Government is required to appoint the Chief Wildlife Warden(CWW), Wildlife Wardens, and Honorary Wildlife Wardens.
  • Hunting and poaching are prohibited under the Act with exceptions such as special permission may be granted by CWW for purposes like education, scientific research, etc.
  • Constitution of the National Board for Wildlife with the PM as its chairperson.
  • 6 schedules include protection to both animals and plants including Vermin (specified in Schedule five)
  • Recognition of Protected Areas (PAs) such as Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks.

Source:  Down to Earth

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Among the following Tiger Reserves, which one has the largest area under “Critical Tiger Habitat”? (2020)

  1. Corbett
  2. Ranthambore
  3. Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam
  4. Sunderbans

Q.2) Consider the following statements:

  1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.
  3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


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