In News: A strand of antimicrobial-resistant gonorrhoea outbreak has hit Kenya, according to researchers at the Kenya Medical Research Institute (Kemri).
- Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium.
- N. gonorrhoeae infects the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women, and the urethra in women and men. N. gonorrhoeae can also infect the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, eyes, and rectum.
- Gonorrhoea is the second-most common disease to be sexually transmitted across the world after chlamydia, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
- Transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner.
- Gonorrhea can also be spread perinatally from mother to baby during childbirth.
- Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired.
- Symptoms – urethral infection in men include dysuria or a white, yellow, or green urethral discharge, testicular or scrotal pain, etc.
- In women it includes dysuria, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods.
- People who have had gonorrhea and received treatment may be reinfected if they have sexual contact with a person infected with gonorrhea.
- CDC now recommends a single 500 mg intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhea.
- Overuse of antibiotics, genetic mutations of the bacteria and repeated use of poor-quality drugs makes it drug-resistant
- Drug-resistant super gonorrhoea was first detected in samples taken from sex workers in the capital city, Nairobi, and other urban areas like Kiambu County.
- The incurable infection that is asymptomatic in some cases, can cause significant health challenges, including permanent damage to their reproductive systems.
- Other diseases that medics have expressed concern over due to total antimicrobial resistance include various strains of SARS-CoV-2, ebola virus disease, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever and marburg virus disease.