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DNA mitochondrial profiling

  • IASbaba
  • January 7, 2023
  • 0
Science and Technology
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Context: Recently, Hair and bone samples of Shradha Walkar were sent for DNA mitochondrial profiling by police.

  • Mitochondrial DNA is the circular chromosome found inside the cellular organelles called mitochondria.
  • Located in the cytoplasm, mitochondria are the site of the cell’s energy production and other metabolic functions.
  • Offspring inherit mitochondria — and as a result mitochondrial DNA — from their mother.

About DNA mitochondrial profiling:

  • It examines biological evidence when nuclear DNA is present in very low quantities or when bones and hair are degraded.
  • It determines the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from samples such as hair, bones, and teeth.
  • It can be done where DNA extraction is difficult.
  • Mitochondria is extracted from the cell and genome sequence is then matched with the family.
  • Maternal inheritance of mitochondria allows scientists to compare it with maternally related individuals of a missing person.
  • Unique identifications are not possible using this analysis.

Source: Hindustan Times

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements: DNA Barcoding can be a tool to:

  1. assess the age of a plant or animal.
  2. distinguish among species that look alike.
  3. identify undesirable animal or plant materials in processed foods.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (2022)

  1. 1 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 2 and 3

Q.2) With reference to the recent developments in science, which one of the following statements is not correct? (2019)

  1. Functional chromosomes can be created by joining segments of DNA taken from cells of different species.
  2. Pieces of artificial functional DNA can be created in laboratories.
  3. A piece of DNA taken out from an animal cell can be made to replicate outside a living cell in a laboratory.
  4. Cells taken out from plants and animals can be made to undergo cell division in laboratory petri dishes.

Q.3) Recombinant DNA technology (Genetic Engineering) allows genes to be transferred

  1. Across different species of plants.
  2. From animals to plants.
  3. From microorganisms to higher organisms.

Select the correct Solution using the codes given below. (2013)

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

 

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