Genetic Sequence of 4 Indian cows by the IISER Bhopal

  • IASbaba
  • February 4, 2023
  • 0
Science and Technology
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Context: Scientists at the Bhopal chapter of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research have unravelled for the first time the genetic makeup of native Indian cow breeds Kasargod Dwarf, Kasargod Kapila, Vechur, and Ongole.

About genome sequencing:

  • A genome is a complete set of genetic instructions which are present in an organism in its DNA.
  • Sequencing is the sequence of occurrences of the four nucleotide bases i.e., adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).
  • The human genome is made up of over 3 billion of these genetic letters.
  • The whole genome can’t be sequenced all at once because available methods of DNA sequencing can only handle short stretches of DNA at a time.
  • While human genomes are made of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), a virus genome can be made of either DNA or RNA (Ribonucleic acid).
  • Genome sequencing is a technique that reads and interprets genetic information found within DNA or RNA.

About the Cow Breeds:

Kasargod Dwarf

  • It is originated in the mountain range of Kasaragod district, Kerala
  • They are known for their excellent milking ability and give mineral-rich milk with a high feed-to-milk ratio.
  • One among the four prime dwarf cattle in India- Kasargod Dwarf, Malnad Gidda, Punganur and Vechur Cattle.

Kasargod Kapila

  • Native to Karnataka and Kasaragod.
  • They possess golden hide of shining texture, golden eyes, and nose.
  • Voluntarily shed their horns annually
  • It contains a substance named “Go-rochana” and possess rare medicinal qualities according to ancient literature and traditional healers.


  • Smallest cattle breed in the world.
  • Rare breed of Bos indicus cattle in Kerala.
  • Listed on the Food and Agriculture Organization’s World Watch List of Domestic Animal Diversity.


  • Breed of cattle family Bos indicus in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Known for their toughness, rapid growth rate, and natural tolerance to tropical heat and disease resistance.
  • This breed is Famous for its bulls commonly used in bullfights in Mexico and East Africa.

Source: Times of India

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Which one of the following statements best describes the role of B cells and T cells in the human body? (2022)

  1. They protect the environmental allergens. body
  2. They alleviate the body’s pain and inflammation.
  3. They act as immunosuppressants in the body.
  4. They protect the body from the diseases caused by pathogens.


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