Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

  • IASbaba
  • February 25, 2023
  • 0
Environment & Ecology
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Context: The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework adopted recently, respects the rights of indigenous people regarding biodiversity.

About Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework:

  • The “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF) was adopted by the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • It includes four goals and 23 targets to be achieved by 2030.
  • COP 15 took place in Montreal, Canada.
  • Through Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), countries agreed to protect 30 percent of the planet by 2030.
  • The countries pledged to achieve 23 targets to reverse ecosystem degradation under four overarching goals for the survival of the natural world.
  • Under the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), countries also agreed to reduce harmful government subsidies worth 500 billion dollars annually, while vowing to identify subsidies that are harmful to biodiversity by 2025.
  • Its other targets include reducing the use of pesticides by half and raising annual international financial flows from developed to developing countries to at least 20 billion dollars by 2025, and to at least 30 billion dollars by 2030.

Impact on India:

  • The Global Biodiversity Plan gives India legroom on farm subsidies.
  • The GBF gives elbow space to India both in terms of continuing farm subsidies and pesticide use.

About Nagoya Protocol:

  • This protocol was established at the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • The Nagoya Protocol is an international agreement that aims to fairly and equitably distribute the advantages that result from the use of genetic resources.
  • The procedure was approved in Nagoya, Japan, in 2010 and came into effect in 2014.
  • The Nagoya Protocol has been ratified by 137 parties as of April 2022, including the European Union and 136 UN member states.
  • India signed the Nagoya Protocol in 2011 and ratified it in October 2012.
  • The ratification by India was done at the 11th Conference of Parties (COP) to the CBD, which was conducted in Hyderabad.
  • Members are required under the protocol to implement procedures pertaining to compliance, benefit sharing, and access to genetic resources.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) “Climate Action Tracker” which monitors the emission reduction pledges of different countries is a : (2022)

  1. Database created by a coalition of research organizations
  2. Wing of “International Panel of Climate Change”
  3. Committee under “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”
  4. Agency promoted and financed by United Nations Environment Programme and World Bank

Q.2)  Consider the following statements: (2022)

  1. The Climate Group is an international non-profit organization that drives climate action by building large networks and running them.
  2. The International Energy Agency in partnership with the Climate Group launched a global initiative “EP100”.
  3. EP100 brings together leading companies committed to driving innovation in energy efficiency and increasing competitiveness while delivering on emission reduction goals.
  4. Some Indian companies are members of EP100.
  5. The International Energy Agency is the Secretariat of the “Under2 Coalition”.

Which of the statements given above is correct?

  1. 1,2, 4 and 5
  2. 1,3 and 4 only 
  3. 2,3 and 5 only
  4. 1,2, 3, 4 and 5

 Q.3) With reference to the ‘’New York Declaration on Forests’’, which of the following statements is correct? (2021)

  1. It was first endorsed at the United Nations Climate Summit in 2014
  2. It endorses a global timeline to end the loss of forests
  3. It is a legally binding international declaration
  4. It is endorsed by governments, big companies, and indigenous communities.
  5. India was one of the signatories at its inception

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2 and 4 only
  2. 1, 3 and 5 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 2 and 5 only


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